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India lies at the north of the equator between 8° 4' and 37° 6' north latitude and 68° 7' and 97° 25' east longitude. It is bounded on the South West by the Arabian Sea & on the South East by the Bay of Bengal. On the North, North East & North West lie the Himalayan ranges. The southern tip, Kanyakumari is washed by the Indian Ocean.
India measures 3214 km from North to South & 2933 km from east to west with a total land area of 3,287,263 It has a land frontier of 15,200 km & a coastline of 7516.5 km. Andaman & Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal & Lakshadweep in the Arabian Sea are parts of India. India shares its political borders with Pakistan and Afghanistan on the West and Bangladesh and Burma on the East. The Northern boundary is made up of the Sinkiang province of China, Tibet, Nepal and Bhutan.
India has Seven major Physiographic regions
1. Northern Mountains including the Himalayas and mountain ranges in the North-East.
2. The Indo-Gangetic plain
3. Central Highlands
4. Peninsular plateau
5. East Coast
6. West Coast
7. Bordering seas and islands.
India has Seven principal Mountain ranges :
1. the Himalayas
2. the Patkai and other ranges bordering India in the North & North East
3. the Vindhyas, which separate the Indo- Gangetic plain from the Deccan Plateau
4. the Satpura
5. the Aravalli
6. the Sahayadri, which covers the Eastern fringe of the West Coast plains and
7. the Eastern Ghats, irregularly scattered on the East Coast and, forming the boundary of the East Coast plains.
Himalayas, the highest mountain - system in the world, is also one of the world's youngest mountain ranges.
National EMBLEM The State Emblem of India is an adaptation from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Asoka as preserved in the Sarnath Museum. The Government adopted the emblem on 26th January, 1950, the day when India became a Republic. In the State Emblem adopted by the Government, only three lions are visible, the fourth being hidden from view. The wheel appears in relief in the centre of the abacus with a bull on the right and a horse on the left and the outlines of the other wheels on the extreme right and left. The bell-shaped lotus has been omitted. The Words, Saytameva Jayate from the Mundaka Upanishad meaning ‘Truth alone triumphs’ are inscribed below the abacus in Devanagari script.
National FLAG The National Flag is a horizontal tri-colour of deep saffron (Kesari) at the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. The ratio of the width of the flag to its length is two to three. In the centre of white band is a wheel, in navy blue, which represents the Charkha (Khadi Spinning Wheel). Its design is that of the wheel (Chakra) which appears on the abacus of the Sarnath Lion Capital of Asoka. Its diameter approximates the width of the white band. It has 24 spokes. The design of the National Flag was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on 22nd July, 1947. Its use and display are regulated by a code. Rabindranath Tagore ’s song, Jana- gana-mana was adopted by the Constituent Assembly as the National Anthem of India on 24th January 1950. The first stanza (out of 5 stanzas) of the song, forms the National Anthem. National Calendar The Saka year has the normal 365 days and begins with Chaitra as its first month. The days of the Saka calendar have permanent correspondence with the dates of the Gregorian Calendar, Chaitra 1 falling on March 22 in a normal year and on March 21 in a Leap Year. The National Calendar commenced on Chaitra 1 Saka, 1879 corresponding to March 22, 1957 A.D.
National Song Bankim Chandra Chatterjee’s Vande Mataram which was a source of inspiration to the people in their struggle for freedom, has an equal status with Janagana- mana. The first political occasion on which it was sung was the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress.
India- Religious Communities
The major religious communities of India are the Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains and Parsis.
RELIGIOUS BOOKS Hindus- Four Vedas, The Bhagwad Gita, The Ramayana, The Puranas, The Mahabharat, The Upanishads, The Ramcharitmanas
Muslims-The Holy Quran
Sikhs - Guru Granth Sahib
Christians - The Bible
Parsis - Zend Avesta

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