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. N I M R O D'

Embassador of Satan''

NIMROD' a History king''
Biblical account :
The first mention of Nimrod is in the Table of Nations.[1] He is described as the son of Cush, grandson of Ham, and great- grandson of Noah; and as "a mighty one on the earth" and
"a mighty hunter before God".
This is repeated in First Book of Chronicles and the "Land of Nimrod", used as a synonym for
Assyria, is mentioned in the Book of Micah. Micah 5:6: And they shall waste the land of
Assyria with the sword, and the
land of Nimrod in the entrances
thereof: thus shall he deliver us
from the Assyrian, when he
cometh into our land, and when he treadeth within our borders. Genesis says that the "beginning
of his kingdom" (reshit
memelketo) was the towns of
"Babel, Uruk, Akkad and Calneh in the land of
Shinar" (Mesopotamia) —
understood variously to imply
that he either founded these
cities, ruled over them, or both.
Owing to an ambiguity in the original Hebrew text, it is unclear whether it is he or Asshur who additionally built Nineveh, Resen, Rehoboth-Ir and Calah (both interpretations are reflected in various English versions). (Genesis 10:8–12) (Genesis 10:8-12; 1 Chronicles 1:10, Micah 5:6). Sir Walter Raleigh devoted several pages in his History of the World (c.
1616) to reciting past
scholarship regarding the
question of whether it had
been Nimrod or Ashur who built the cities in Assyria.[2]
Traditions and legends Since Classical times :,
Nimrod has
traditionally been considered
the leader of those who built
the Tower of Babel in the land
of Shinar, though the Bible never actually states this.
Nimrod’s kingdom included the
cities of Babel, Erech, Accad,
and Calneh, all in Shinar. (Ge
10:10) Therefore it was likely
under his direction that the building of Babel and its tower
began; in addition to Flavius Josephus, this is also the view found in the Talmud (Chullin 89a, Pesahim 94b, Erubin 53a, Avodah Zarah 53b), and later midrash such as Genesis Rabba. Several of these early Judaic sources
also assert that the king Amraphel, who wars with Abraham later in Genesis, is
none other than Nimrod himself. Judaic interpreters as early as Philo and Yochanan ben Zakai (1st century AD) interpreted "a
mighty hunter before the
Lord" (Heb. : הוהי ינפל , lit. "in the face of the Lord") as
signifying "in opposition to the
Lord"; a similar interpretation is
found in Pseudo-Philo, as well as later in Symmachus. Some rabbinic commentators have also
connected the name Nimrod
with a Hebrew word meaning
'rebel'. In Pseudo-Philo (dated
ca. AD 70), Nimrod is made
leader of the Hamites; while Joktan as leader of the Semites, and Fenech as leader
of the Japhethites, are also
associated with the building of the Tower.[3] Versions of this story are again picked up in
later works such as Apocalypse of Pseudo-Methodius (7th century AD). The Book of Jubilees mentions the name of "Nebrod" (the
Greek form of Nimrod) only as
being the father of Azurad, the
wife of Eber and mother of Peleg (8:7). This account would thus make him an ancestor of
Abraham, and hence of all
Hebrews. Josephus wrote: "Now it was Nimrod who
excited them to such an
affront and contempt of
God. He was the grandson
of Ham, the son of Noah, a
bold man, and of great strength of hand. He
persuaded them not to
ascribe it to God, as if it
were through his means
they were happy, but to
believe that it was their own courage which
procured that happiness.
He also gradually changed
the government into
tyranny, seeing no other
way of turning men from the fear of God, but to
bring them into a constant
dependence on his power.
He also said he would be
revenged on God, if he
should have a mind to drown the world again; for
that he would build a
tower too high for the
waters to reach. And that
he would avenge himself on
God for destroying their forefathers. Now the multitude were
very ready to follow the
determination of Nimrod,
and to esteem it a piece
of cowardice to submit to
God; and they built a tower, neither sparing any
pains, nor being in any
degree negligent about the
work: and, by reason of
the multitude of hands
employed in it, it grew very high, sooner than any
one could expect; but the
thickness of it was so
great, and it was so
strongly built, that thereby
its great height seemed, upon the view, to be less
than it really was. It was
built of burnt brick,
cemented together with
mortar, made of bitumen,
that it might not be liable to admit water. When God
saw that they acted so
madly, he did not resolve
to destroy them utterly,
since they were not grown
wiser by the destruction of the former sinners; but he
caused a tumult among
them, by producing in them
diverse languages, and
causing that, through the
multitude of those languages, they should not
be able to understand one
another. The place wherein
they built the tower is
now called Babylon,
because of the confusion of that language which
they readily understood
before; for the Hebrews
mean by the word Babel,
An early Arabic work known as Kitab al-Magall or the Book of
Rolls (part of Clementine literature) states that Nimrod built the towns of Hadâniûn, Ellasar, Seleucia, Ctesiphon, Rûhîn, Atrapatene, Telalôn, and others, that he began his reign
as king over earth when Reu was 163, and that he reigned
for 69 years, building Nisibis, Raha (Edessa) and Harran when Peleg was 50. It further adds that Nimrod "saw in the sky a
piece of black cloth and a
crown." He called upon Sasan
the weaver and commanded him
to make him a crown like it,
which he set jewels on and wore. He was allegedly the first
king to wear a crown. "For this
reason people who knew
nothing about it, said that a
crown came down to him from heaven." Later, the book describes how Nimrod
established fire worship and
idolatry, then received
instruction in divination for
three years from Bouniter, the fourth son of Noah.[4] In the Recognitions (R 4.29), one
version of the Clementines,
Nimrod is equated with the
legendary Assyrian king Ninus, who first appears in the Greek historian Ctesias as the founder of Nineveh. However, in another
version, the Homilies (H 9.4-6),
Nimrod is made to be the same
as Zoroaster. The Syriac Cave of Treasures (ca. 350) contains an account of
Nimrod very similar to that in
the Kitab al-Magall, except that
Nisibis, Edessa and Harran are
said to be built by Nimrod when
Reu was 50, and that he began his reign as the first king when
Reu was 130. In this version,
the weaver is called Sisan, and
the fourth son of Noah is called
Yonton. Jerome, writing ca. 390, explains in Hebrew Questions on Genesis
that after Nimrod reigned in
Babel, "he also reigned in Arach
[Erech], that is, in Edissa; and in
Achad [Accad], which is now
called Nisibis; and in Chalanne [Calneh], which was later called
Seleucia after King Seleucus
when its name had been
changed, and which is now in
actual fact called Ctesiphon."
However, this traditional identification of the cities built
by Nimrod in Genesis is no
longer accepted by modern
scholars, who consider them to
be located in Sumer, not Syria. The Ge'ez Conflict of Adam and Eve with Satan (ca. 5th century) also contains a version
similar to that in the Cave of
Treasures, but the crown
maker is called Santal, and the
name of Noah's fourth son who
instructs Nimrod is Barvin. However, Ephrem the Syrian (306-373) relates a
contradictory view, that Nimrod
was righteous and opposed the
builders of the Tower. Similarly, Targum Pseudo-Jonathan (date uncertain) mentions a Jewish
tradition that Nimrod left Shinar
and fled to Assyria, because he
refused to take part in building
the Tower — for which God
rewarded him with the four cities in Assyria, to substitute
for the ones in Babel. Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer (c. 833) relates the Jewish traditions
that Nimrod inherited the
garments of Adam and Eve from
his father Cush, and that these
made him invincible. Nimrod's
party then defeated the Japhethites to assume universal
rulership. Later, Esau (grandson of Abraham), ambushed, beheaded, and robbed Nimrod.
These stories later reappear in
other sources including the 16th
century Sefer haYashar, which adds that Nimrod had a son
named Mardon who was even more wicked.[5]
In the History of the Prophets and Kings by the 9th century Muslim historian al-Tabari, Nimrod has the tower built in
Babil, Allah destroys it, and the language of mankind, formerly Syriac, is then confused into 72 languages. Another Muslim
historian of the 13th century, Abu al-Fida, relates the same story, adding that the patriarch Eber (an ancestor of Abraham) was allowed to keep the original
tongue, Hebrew in this case,
because he would not partake
in the building. The 10th
century Muslim historian Masudi recounts a legend making the
Nimrod who built the tower to
be the son of Mash, the son of Aram, son of Shem, adding that he reigned 500 years over the Nabateans. Later, Masudi lists Nimrod as the first king of
Babylon, and states that he
dug great canals and reigned
60 years. Still elsewhere, he
mentions another king Nimrod,
son of Canaan, as the one who introduced astrology and
attempted to kill Abraham. In Armenian legend, the ancestor of the Armenian
people, Hayk, defeated Nimrod (sometimes equated with Bel) in a battle near Lake Van. In the Hungarian legend of the Enchanted Stag (more commonly
known as the White Stag [Fehér
Szarvas] or Silver Stag), King
Nimród (aka Ménrót and often
described as "Nimród the Giant"
or "the giant Nimród", descendant of one of Noah's
"most wicked" sons, Kam -
references abound in traditions,
legends, several religions and
historical sources to persons
and nations bearing the name of Kam or Kám, and
overwhelmingly, the
connotations are negative), is
the first person referred to ...
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