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THEORY : WAVE STRUCTURE OF MATTER

Knowing the true structure of matter allows calculation of many applications of material
sciences that were poorly known before. Most applications involve understanding the
behavior of matter at very small dimensions where the particulate approximation fails and
the WSM is necessary to understand what is happening when different substances interact
chemically, electrically, or biologically. Some occur in the computer field such as the
development of semiconductor devices. Biological interactions, digestion, nutrition, and
medicine, are very important in human health and can now be studied on a calculated
basis. Chemical interactions are involved in the development of energy storage devices
such as batteries, and in metallic alloys where the common R&D practice is trial and
error. The WSM may improve this practice because knowing the true atomic wave
structure often allows prediction of useful properties or to develop materials having a
specified need. Using the WSM it is now possible to calculate and understand the binding
between different atoms and molecules, due to resonant joining of wave structures
between them. Formerly, this could not be done using discrete particles because their
wave do not exist in a particle model. Some applications are discussed below:
Recent work on the Wave Structure of Matter
Mathematical Research of the Wave Structure of Matter. After the advances of
W&F, Schrödinger and Einstein, little research was done on the structure of particles;
After 1945, particle physicists chose to work on post WWII weapons. But the growth of
computers and microcircuits has spurred new research on the WSM.
Milo Wolff in 1985 began the first mathematical theory of the WSM using a scalar wave
equation with spherical quantum wave solutions. He found the Wave Structure of Matter
described in his earlier book (1990) “Exploring the Physics of the Unknown Universe –
An Adventurer’s Guide and this book. It successfully predicted the natural laws and the
properties of the electron. This web site continues that work on the natural laws
including a derivation of gravity and the physical origin of spin that accords with
experiment, quantum theory and the Dirac Equation). It completes the structure of the
electron and its waves and extended applications to cosmology.
New pioneers. Many younger physicists have begun to explore the WSM further; most
of their work is published on the Internet, including Geoff Haselhurst in Australia who
has extensively explored (1998 to present) the philosophical background of the WSM
shown on his entertaining and deeply researched website: SpaceAndMotion.com
Mike Harney in industry (michael.harney@signaldisplay.com) has found a way to
derive the light-speed c of quantum waves treating space as an elastic quantum medium
(with potential energy) and with moving mass-density (kinetic energy). This is the first
understanding of this important fact of Nature and the wave-medium. Mike Weber
working on a USN submarine, created a mathematically accurate and beautiful graphic
3D view of the in-out waves (a standing resonance) of the electron:
Industrial microcircuits and electrodynamics
Akira Tonomura of the Hitachi Corp published in 1998 The Quantum World Unveiled
by Electron Waves (World Scientific Press), a beautifully illustrated book that discusses
the quantization of flux at low temperatures in a closed loop of real electron waves.
Quantization occurs because the waves of the circulating electrons must join in phase,
otherwise they cancel each other.
Carver Meade, Professor emeritus at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech),
investigated electron waves in his 2000 book Collective Electrodynamics published by
MIT Press. His work has been used and supported by the Intel Corporation. He
recognized that the electron is not a point particle but a wave structure, and that e-m
approximations, especially in magnetism, do not work at quantum dimensions. He used
the measured effect of wave structure at low temperatures (termed the Quantum Hall-
effect) that the magnetic flux f in a closed loop of current takes only quantized values:
Flux = nf, where n is an integer. This is because the waves of the circulating electrons
must join together in phase, otherwise they cancel each other. He derived a vector
potential to correct the flawed magnetic terms of Maxwell’s Equations, using
measurements of electron waves in closed loops. Recall that Einstein pointed out the
flaws of Maxwell’s Equations long ago but science had to wait 40 years before Meade
corrected them. His book, very popular in Silicon Valley, shows correct ways to solve the
electromagnetism of transistor circuits. MIT awarded him the Lemelson-MIT Prize
($500,000) in 1999. Meade felt that the failure of the physics community to recognize the
WSM was a serious omission. He wrote: "It is my firm belief that the last seven decades
of the twentieth century will be recorded in history as the dark ages of theoretical
physics."
In an interview (American Spectator, Sep/Oct 2001, Vol. 34 Issue 7, p68), he stated:
"The quantum world is a world of waves, not particles. So we have to think of electron
waves and proton waves and so on. Matter is 'incoherent' when all its waves have a
different wavelength, implying a different momentum. On the other hand, if you take a
pure quantum system - the electrons in a superconducting magnet, or the atoms in a laser
- they are all in phase with one another, and they demonstrate the wave nature of matter
on a large scale. Then you can see quite visibly what matter is down at its heart.”
New opportunities.
The simplicity of the WSM provides easy access to the behavior of materials whose
properties depend on their structure at the atomic level. This was not possible using the
discrete particle model of matter because many materials presented property enigmas that
were not understood. Using the WSM permits research of the material wave structure that
joins atoms within the material and with external material. This knowledge and ability to
calculate is can produce rewarding results. Probable cases are below:
1. Graphene.
This is a newly discovered form of graphite that exhibits unusual behavior not currently
explainable using the discrete particle approximation. It occurs in flat sheets of carbon
atoms, and in rolled-up sheets termed ‘nanotubes’. These sheets and tubes have
extremely low electrical resistance and are being considered (2006) for use in
microcircuits.
The current graphene enigma using the discrete particle model is described as:
Graphene contains quasiparticles. They are of a type known as massive chiral fermions.
Chirality refers to "handedness", in that the left hand is the chiral opposite of the right
hand. Unfortunately, discrete particle physics predicts that any particle that has chirality
cannot have mass, so a massive chiral fermion is a contradiction in terms."
Graphene can be an opportunity for wave-matter theory to explain. It can be
experimented on easily at room temperature, so predictions might be testable.
2. Magneto-resistance (MR) devices.
Magneto-resistance occurs when a magnetic field applied to a semiconductor, changes
the resistance of the semiconductor and thus the current that can flow through it. There
are
The giant MR is commonly used in the read-write heads of modern high-speed disc
memories. A usual design is to build two ferromagnetic layers that sandwich a layer of
non-ferromagnetic semiconductor. The magnetism of one ferro layer is a fixed magnet
and an outside field orients the other layer, perpendicular to it. When the magnetic fields
of the two layers are parallel, the resistance of the inner layer is very low and a large
current flows. The resistance change is very fast - about 0.1 nanosecond permitting rapid
data entry and retrieval.
Recently an even faster MR has been found (Scientific American, July 2004) termed
Extraordinary MR (EMR) that depends on the geometry of the 3 layers, one of which is
a conductor between the two semiconductors. This produces a time constant of about
0.001 nanosecond, 100 times faster. An imposed magnetic field causes electrons to travel
spiral paths thus lengthening the travel time between collisions and increasing the
resistance.
It is well known (See Carver Meade, 2000) that the usual equations for magnetism
are a poor approximation so that using the WSM, better calculations can be made of the
magneto-resistance effect.
Biology and Genetics. The techniques of manufacturing semi-conductors are beginning
to be applied to building organic devices using biological parts. It is possible
(Engineering Life, Scientific American, June 2006) to synthesize DNA strands from their
constituent basic four molecules: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T).
Although DNA is a very long molecule – millions of basic units – the basic units are
just two simple pairs of the basic four molecules: AT and CG. These unit-pairs form the
rungs of the enormous DNA ladder molecule. It is amazing that the genetic code that
contains the key instructions to grow every form of life is contained only in the billions of possible arrangements of the millions of pairs on the ladder. How did Nature learn and
arrange the mathematics of probability that distinguishes one living organ from another –
an ear from a tooth, for example? Again we see that Nature is binary, and that
complexity in Nature arises out of simplicity.
How did Nature find this scheme of mathematics that underlies the evolution and growth
of life? It is even more amazing when you realize that the wave-bonds between molecules
must be have just the correct exchange energy to hold them together and yet, when
necessary in the growth of an egg into a living organism, the bonds can be separated as
required in the presence of other molecules, acids, and bases. Not just any molecule will
do – they must be just right in ways that we do not yet understand. Biochemistry science
does not yet evaluate the energy of bonding schemes. Standard chemistry merely
describes the arrangements of molecules and their behavior. This is because the bonds
are wave structures not yet widely used.
The use of the WSM may provide greater understanding of the growth of life.
Industrial Alloys. Most of the valuable varieties of metallic alloys – steel, brass, dura-
aluminum, etc. that are widely used in industrial applications are simple mixtures of the
basic elements – iron, carbon, copper, zinc, aluminum, etc. Their properties have been
discovered by trial and error over centuries of smithing, weapon building, and industrial
metallurgy. In principle, if one knew the way the ...
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