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Ernest Hemingway

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American author and journalist. His distinctive writing style, characterized by economy and understatement, influenced 20th-century fiction, as did his life of adventure and public image. He produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and the mid-1950s. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954. Hemingway's fiction was successful because the characters he presented exhibited authenticity that resonated with his audience. Many of his works are classics of American literature. He published seven novels, six short story collections, and two non-fiction works during his lifetime; a further three novels, four collections of short stories, and three non-fiction works were published posthumously.

Hemingway was born and raised in Oak Park, Illinois. After leaving high school he worked for a few months as a reporter for the Kansas City Star, before leaving for the Italian front to become an ambulance driver during World War I, which became the basis for his novel A Farewell to Arms. He was seriously wounded and returned home within the year. In 1922 Hemingway married Hadley Richardson, the first of his four wives, and the couple moved to Paris, where he worked as a foreign correspondent. During his time there he met and was influenced by modernist writers and artists of the 1920s expatriate community known as the "Lost Generation". His first novel, The Sun Also Rises, was written in 1924.

After divorcing Hadley Richardson in 1927 Hemingway married Pauline Pfeiffer; they divorced following Hemingway's return from covering the Spanish Civil War, after which he wrote For Whom the Bell Tolls. Martha Gellhorn became his third wife in 1940, but he left her for Mary Welsh Hemingway after World War II, during which he was present at D-Day and the liberation of Paris.

Shortly after the publication of The Old Man and the Sea in 1952 Hemingway went on safari to Africa, where he was almost killed in a plane crash that left him in pain or ill-health for much of the rest of his life. Hemingway had permanent residences in Key West, Florida, and Cuba during the 1930s and '40s, but in 1959 he moved from Cuba to Ketchum, Idaho, where he committed suicide in the summer of 1961.

Contents [hide]
1 Biography
1.1 Early life
1.2 World War I
1.3 Toronto and Chicago
1.4 Paris
1.5 Key West and the Caribbean
1.6 Spanish Civil War and World War II
1.7 Cuba
1.8 Idaho and suicide
2 Writing style
3 Themes
4 Influence and legacy
5 Selected list of works
6 See also
7 References
7.1 Notes
7.2 Citations
7.3 Sources
8 External links

[edit] Biography
[edit] Early life

Ernest Hemingway was the second child, and first son, born to his parents Clarence and Grace Hemingway.Ernest Miller Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago.[1] His father Clarence Edmonds Hemingway was a physician, and his mother, Grace Hall-Hemingway, was a musician. Both were well-educated and well-respected in the conservative community of Oak Park.[2] Frank Lloyd Wright, a resident of Oak Park, said of the village: "So many churches for so many good people to go to".[3] When Clarence and Grace Hemingway married in 1896, they moved in with Grace's father, Ernest Hall,[4] after whom they named their first son.[note 1] Hemingway claimed to dislike his name, which he "associated with the naive, even foolish hero of Oscar Wilde's play The Importance of Being Earnest".[5] The family's seven-bedroom home in a respectable neighborhood contained a music studio for Grace and a medical office for Clarence.[6]

Hemingway's mother frequently performed in concerts around the village. As an adult Hemingway professed to hate his mother, although biographer Michael Reynolds points out that Hemingway mirrored her energy and enthusiasm.[7] Her insistence that he learn to play the cello became a "source of conflict", but he later admitted the music lessons were useful in his writing, as in the "contrapunctal structure" of For Whom the Bell Tolls.[8] The family owned a summer home called Windemere on Walloon Lake, near Petoskey, Michigan, where Hemingway learned to hunt, fish and camp in the woods and lakes of Northern Michigan. His early experiences in nature instilled a passion for outdoor adventure, and living in remote or isolated areas.[9]


Ernest Hemingway's birthplace in Oak Park, Illinois. Hemingway lived here until he was seven, when the family moved to a home a few blocks away.Hemingway attended Oak Park and River Forest High School from 1913 until 1917. He took part in a number of sports—boxing, track and field, water polo, and football—and had good grades in English classes.[10] He and his sister Marcelline performed in the school orchestra for two years.[7] Hemingway wrote for and edited the Trapeze and Tabula (the school's newspaper and yearbook), for which he imitated the language of sportswriters, and used the pen name Ring Lardner, Jr.—a nod to Ring Lardner of the Chicago Tribune whose byline was "Line O'Type".[11] Like Mark Twain, Stephen Crane, Theodore Dreiser and Sinclair Lewis, Hemingway was a journalist before becoming a novelist; after leaving high school he went to work for The Kansas City Star as a cub reporter.[12] Although he stayed there for only six months he relied on the Star's style guide as a foundation for his writing: "Use short sentences. Use short first paragraphs. Use vigorous English. Be positive, not negative."[13]

[edit] World War I

Hemingway photographed in Milan, 1918, dressed in uniform. For two months he drove ambulances until he was wounded.Early in 1918 Hemingway responded to a Red Cross recruitment effort and signed on to be an ambulance driver in Italy.[14] He left New York in May, and arrived in Paris as the city was under bombardment from German artillery.[15] By June he was stationed at the Italian Front, and on his first day in Milan was sent to the scene of a munitions factory explosion where rescuers retrieved the shredded remains of female workers. He described the incident in his non-fiction book Death in the Afternoon: "I remember that after we searched quite thoroughly for the complete dead we collected fragments".[16] A few days later he was stationed at Fossalta di Piave. On July 8 he was seriously wounded by mortar fire, having just returned from the canteen to deliver chocolate and cigarettes to the men at the front line.[17] Despite his wounds, Hemingway carried an Italian soldier to safety, for which he received the Italian Silver Medal of Bravery.[18] Still only eighteen, Hemingway said of the incident: "When you go to war as a boy you have a great illusion of immortality. Other people get killed; not you ... Then when you are badly wounded the first time you lose that illusion and you know it can happen to you."[19] He sustained shrapnel wounds to both legs; underwent an operation at a distribution center; spent five days at a field hospital; and was transferred to the Red Cross hospital in Milan for recuperation.[20] Hemingway spent six months in the hospital, where he met and fell in love with Agnes von Kurowsky, a Red Cross nurse seven years his senior.[21] Agnes and Hemingway planned to marry, but she became engaged to an Italian officer in March 1919, an incident that provided material for the short and bitter work "A Very Short Story".[22] Biographer Jeffrey Meyers claims Hemingway was devastated by Agnes' rejection, and that he followed a pattern of abandoning a wife before she abandoned him in future relationships. During his six months in recuperation Hemingway met and formed a strong friendship with "Chink" Dorman-Smith that lasted for decades.[23]

[edit] Toronto and Chicago
Hemingway returned home early in 1919 to a time of readjustment. At not yet 20 years old, the war had created in him a maturity at odds with living at home without a job and the need for recuperation.[24] As Reynolds explains, "Hemingway could not really tell his parents what he thought when he saw his bloody knee. He could not say how scared he was in another country with surgeons who could not tell him in English if his leg was coming off or not."[25] That summer he spent time in Michigan with high school friends, fishing and camping;[19] and in September he spent a week in the back-country. The trip became the inspiration for his short story "Big Two-Hearted River", in which the semi-autobiographical character Nick Adams takes to the country to find solitude after returning from war.[26] A family friend offered him a job in Toronto; having nothing else to do he accepted. Late that year he began as a freelancer, staff writer and foreign correspondent for the Toronto Star Weekly.[27] However he returned to Michigan the following June,[27] and then moved to Chicago in September 1920 to live with friends, while still filing stories for the Toronto Star.

In Chicago he worked as an associate editor of the monthly journal Cooperative Commonwealth, where he met Sherwood Anderson.[28] When St. Louis native Hadley Richardson came to Chicago to visit Hemingway's roommate's sister, Hemingway, who was infatuated, later claimed "I knew she was the girl I was going to marry". Hadley was red-haired, with a "nurturing instinct", and eight years older than Hemingway.[29] Despite the difference in age, Hadley, who had an overprotective mother, seemed less mature than usual for a young woman her age.[30] Bernice Kert, author of The Hemingway Women, claims Hadley was "evocative" of Agnes, but that Hadley had a childishness that Agnes lacked. The two corresponded for a few months, and then decided to marry and travel to Europe.[29] They wanted to visit Rome, but Sherwood Anderson convinced them to visit Paris instead.[31] They were married on September 3, 1921; two months later Hemingway was hired as foreign correspondent for the Toronto Star; and the couple left for Paris. Of Hemingway's marriage to Hadley, Meyers claims: "With Hadley, Hemingway achieved everything he had hoped for with Agnes: the love of a beautiful woman, a comfortable income, a life in Europe."[32]

[edit] Paris

Hemingway's 1923 passport photo. At this time he lived in Paris with his wife Hadley, and worked as a journalist.Early Hemingway biographer Carlos Baker believes that, while Anderson suggested Paris because "the monetary exchange rate" made it an inexpensive place to live, more importantly it was where "the most interesting people in the world" resided. There Hemingway would meet ...
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