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Allama Iqbal as Youth in
Iqbal, after completing
his Master of Arts
degree in 1899, initiated
his career as a reader of
Arabic at Oriental
College and shortly was
selected as a junior
professor of philosophy
at Government College
Lahore, where he had
also been a student,
Iqbal worked there until
he left for England in
1905. In 1908, Iqbal
returned from England
and joined again the
same college as a
professor of philosophy
and English literature.
At the same period
Iqbal began practicing
law at Chief Court
Lahore, but soon Iqbal
quit law practice, and
devoted himself in
literary works and
became an active
member of Anjuman-e-
. In 1919, he became
the general secretary of
the same organisation.
Iqbal's thoughts in his
work primarily focus on
the spiritual direction
and development of
human society,
centered around
experiences from his
travels and stays in
Western Europe and the
Middle East. He was
profoundly influenced by
Western philosophers
such as Friedrich
Nietzsche, Henri
Bergson and Goethe.
The poetry and
philosophy of Mawlana
Rumi bore the deepest
influence on Iqbal's
mind. Deeply grounded
in religion since
childhood, Iqbal began
intensely concentrating
on the study of Islam,
the culture and history
of Islamic civilization
and its political future,
while embracing Rumi
as "his guide". Iqbal
would feature Rumi in
the role of guide in
many of his poems.
Iqbal's works focus on
reminding his readers of
the past glories of
Islamic civilization, and
delivering the message
of a pure, spiritual focus
on Islam as a source for
sociopolitical liberation
and greatness. Iqbal
denounced political
divisions within and
amongst Muslim
nations, and frequently
alluded to and spoke in
terms of the global
Muslim community or
the Ummah.
Iqbal poetry has been
translated into many
European languages, at
the time when his work
was famous during the
early part of the 20th
century. Iqbal’s
Asrar-i-Khudi and Javed
Nama were translated
into English by R A
Nicholson and A J
Arberry respectively.

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