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history of tamilnadu - Newest pictures
a-1-culture.of.tamil.peperonity.net

History of tamilnadu

The history of Tamil Nadu
is very old and goes back
to thousands of years
back. It is believed that the
Dravidians of Tamil
country were once a part
of the early Indus Valley
settlers and moved south
after the advent of the
Aryans around 1500 BC.
However, the recorded
history of human
civilization in Tamil Nadu
goes back only to the 4th
century BC. The Sangam
literature has several
references to the social,
economic and cultural life
of people in this part. The
close proximity to the Sea
put the Tamil Country on
the maritime map of the
world even before the
dawn of Christian era.
Over a period of time, the
Tamils developed trade
links with ancient Egypt,
Greece and Rome.
Due to its geographical
and strategic location,
Tamilnadu remained a
bone of contention for
political supremacy
among different empires.
Prior to the Christian era,
the Cholas, Cheras and
Pandyas ruled the Tamil
Country. The domains of
these three dynasties
changed many times over
the centuries. Later, other
dynasties like the Pallavas
and the Chalukyas came
into power. All these
dynasties remained
engaged in political
skirmishes to retain
supremacy over the land.
The most remarkable
aspect of these rulers was
their patronage to
literature, architecture, art
and crafts. Most of these
rulers gave their steady
patronage to various arts
that expedited the
expansion of the Dravidian
culture. The rich tradition
of literature, music and
dance, which were so
ably supported by the
Tamil rulers, continue to
flourish to this day.
The early Cholas between
1st and 4th centuries ruled
Tamil Nadu. The Cholas
ruled the present
Thanjavur and
Tiruchirapalli districts. At
the peak of their glory, the
Chola kings expanded
their influence as far as
Ceylon (Sri Lanka) in the
south and hundreds of
kilometers across the
northern region. Almost
all the Chola Kings were
magnificent temple
builders. Brahadeswarer's
Temple in Tanjore is a
classical example of the
magnificent architecture of
the Chola kingdom.
During the later half of 4th
century, the Pallavas
came into prominence
and dominated the south
for another 400 years.
They ruled a large portion
of Tamil Nadu with
Kanchipuram as their
base. The Dravidian
architecture reached its
epitome during the Pallava
rule.
The Cholas again rose as a
notable power in 9th
century under Rajaraja
Chola and his son
Rajendra Chola. The Chola
Empire extended to the
central Indian states like
Orissa and parts of West
Bengal. Rajendra Chola
went beyond, occupying
the islands of Andaman
and Nicobar,
Lakshadweep, Java,
Sumatra, Malaya and the
islands of Pegu with his
fleet of ships. The Chola
power declined in the last
quarter of the thirteenth
century and the Pandyas
re emerged as a mighty
power, in the early 14th
century. But the
emergence of Pallava was
short lived as Alauddin
Khilji subdued them in the
beginning of the 14th
century. The city of
Madurai was plundered
and completely
destroyed. The invasion
destroyed the Chola and
Pandya dynasties and
later led to the
establishment of Bahmani
Kingdom in the northern
Deccan.
Tamil Nadu was also a
witness to the struggle
between the colonial
powers in which the
British came out
victorious. The British
fought with various
European powers, driving
the Dutch away and
reducing the French
dominions in India to
Pondicherry. The British
also fought four wars
with Hyder Ali and later
his son Tipu Sultan, which
led to their eventual
domination of India's
south. The British
consolidated south India
into the Madras
Presidency.
The Nationalist movement
in Tamil Nadu started in
the late eighteenth
century. The anti-colonial
feeling in Tamil Nadu
started as early as 1806 at
Vellore. After
independence in 1947, the
Madras Presidency
became Madras State,
comprising of present day
Tamil Nadu, coastal
Andhra Pradesh, Northern
Kerala, and the southwest
coast of Karnataka. The
state was later divided on
linguistic lines. In 1968 the
state of Madras was
renamed Tamil Nadu.


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