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We can report a speakers words in two ways.
1. We can quote the actual words of the speaker. This is called Direct Speech.
E.g. a. He said, 'I am going to school'.
b. She said, 'I am unwell'.
2. We can report the speakers words in our own words without any change in the meaning and sense. This is called Indirect Speech (or) Reported Speech.
E.g. a. He said that he was going to school.
b. She said that she was unwell.

1. Quotation marks are removed in Indirect Speech.
2. The pronoun 'I' is changed into 'He' in the first sentence and 'She' in the second sentence.
3. The verb 'am' is changed into 'was'.
Note: 1. Every sentence in the Quotation marks (of present tense) is changed into its correspoding past tense form.
2. If the verb in the sentence given in quotation marks is in the past simple. It should be changed into past perfect tense in Indirect Speech (or) Reported Speech.

Direct Speech- D.S
Indirect Speech- I.S
1. All present tense forms- D.S
All past tense forms- I.S
2. Verb in past simple- D.S
Into verb in past perfect tense- I.S
3. Now- D.S
Then- I.S
4. This- D.S
That- I.S
5. These- D.S
Those- I.S
6. Here- D.S
There- I.S
7. Ago- D.S
Before- I.S
8. Yesterday- D.S
The previous day (or) the day before- I.S
9. Today- D.S
That day- I.S
10. Tomorrow- D.S
The next day (or) the day after- I.S.

There are four types of sentences that are generally given in examinations.
1. Assertive sentence or statements:
The sentences in quotation marks begin with pronouns like I, we, you etc.
Reporting word-> that
a. He said, "we are safe from interruption here".
Ans: He said that they were safe from interruption there.
b. She said, "I read this book long ago."
Ans: She said that she had read that book long before.
c. The doctor said to the boy, "You are all right now."
Ans: The doctor told the boy that he was all right then.

2. Imperative sentences: suggestions, commands, requests etc.
The sentences in quotation marks begin with verbs.
Reporting word-> to
a. "Take medicines regularly", the doctor said to the old woman.
Ans: The doctor advised the old woman to take medicines regularly.
b. "Keep your exercise books on the table", the teacher said to the students.
Ans: The teacher ordered the students to keep their exercise books on the table.
c. "Please post this letter", I said to her.
Ans: I requested her to post that letter.

3. Enquiries: The sentence in the quotation marks begins with helping verbs such as am, is, are, was, were, have, has, shall, will, can, may, do, did and end with a question mark.
Reporting word-> if/whether.
a. "Are you a news reporter?", the minister asked mohan.
Ans: The minister asked mohan whether he was a news reporter.
b. "Will you meet me tomorrow?", he said to her.
Ans: He asked her if she would meet him the next day.
c. "Can I see the manager?", I asked.
Ans: I asked if I could see the manager.

4. Interrogative sentences: The sentences in the quotation marks begin with question words like what, which, when, where, why, who, how, whose, whom and end with a question mark.
No reporting word is used.
a. The teacher said to the girl, "what is your name?"
Ans: The teacher asked the girl what her name was.
b. "Where are you coming from?" the policeman asked the stranger.
Ans: The policeman asked the stranger where he was coming from.
c. "Who knows this address?" he asked them.
Ans: He asked them who knew that address.

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