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a.pep.doctor.peperonity.net

AIDS !!

Introduction:
AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) is a final stage in a development of disease resulting from a viral infection known as the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which is characterized by a weakening of the immune system by destroying lymphocytes(CD4 cells). AIDS is not hereditary but developsafter birth from contact with a disease causing agent (HIV). Roughly 40 million people around the worldliving with AIDS.

Causes:
Sexual transmission: The contact between sexual secretions of the infected person with the rectal, genital or oral mucous membranes of another.
Exposure to blood-borne pathogens: Sharing and reusing syringes contaminated with HIV infected bloodhas a major risk for acquiring infection with HIV.
Perinatal transmission: The transmission of the virus from the mother to the child can occur in utero during the last weeks of pregnancy and at childbirth.

Symptoms:
Early stage symptoms include:
• Oral thrush (yeast infection of the mouth)
• Fever
• Headache
• Swollen lymph glands
• Night sweats
• Easy bruising
• Sore throat
• Bouts of extreme exhaustion
• Body rashes
• Weight loss
Later stage symptoms include
• Kaposi's Sarcoma
• Pulmonary tuberculosis
• Candidiasis of the esophagus, trachea, bronchi or lungs
• Toxoplasmosis of the brain
• Severe bacterial infections
• Invasive cervical cancer
• Lymphoma
• Recurrent pneumonia
• Vision loss
• Nerve damage and brain impairment.

Diagnosis:
ELISA Test (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), is used to detect some antibodieswhich are produced after the HIV infection.
Home Tests - The onlytest which can be done at home is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is called the Home Access Express Test, which is sold in pharmacies.
Saliva Tests - A cotton pad is used to obtain saliva from the inside of cheek. The padis placed in a vial and submitted to a laboratory for testing. Results are available in three days. Positive results should be confirmed with a blood test.
Viral Load Test - This test measures the amount of HIV in blood,it's used to monitor treatment progress or detect early HIV infection.
Western Blot - This is a very sensitive blood test used to confirm a positive ELISA test result.

Treatment:
There is no cure for AIDS but, a variety of treatments are available that can improve the quality of life.
Several drugs available to fight with HIV infection like antiretroviral, they can control reproduction of virus. These medications are called highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and have substantially reduced HIV-related complications and deaths.
Drugs:
Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors(NRTI) interrupts the virus from duplicating, or slows the spread of HIV in the body. They include:
• Abacavir (Ziagen, ABC)
• Didanosine (Videx, dideoxyinosine, ddI)
• Emtricitabine (Emtriva,FTC)
• Lamivudine (Epivir, 3TC)
• Stavudine (Zerit, d4T)
• Tenofovir (Viread, TDF)
• Zalcitabine (Hivid, ddC)
• Zidovudine (Retrovir, ZDV or AZT)
Protease Inhibitors (PI) interrupt virus replication at a later step in the virus life cycle. They are:
• Amprenavir (Agenerase, APV)
• Atazanavir (Reyataz, ATV)
• Fosamprenavir (Lexiva, FOS)
• Indinavir (Crixivan, IDV)
• Lopinavir (Kaletra, LPV/r)
• Ritonavir (Norvir, RIT)
• Saquinavir (Fortovase,Invirase, SQV)
Fusion inhibitors block the virus from entering the body’s cells. They are Enuviritide and maraviroc.

Prevention:
• Practicing safe intercourse or protected intercourse
• Avoiding blood transfusion with out performing HIV check
• Avoiding pregnancy of infected mother
• Don’t have sex with prostitutes
• Avoid anal intercourse altogether.

kankar.peperonity.net


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