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Surgical Procedures !

Abdominal Surgery,

(1). Abdominal Surgery:
The term abdominal surgery broadly covers surgical procedures thatinvolve opening the abdomen. Surgery of each abdominal organ isdealt with separately inconnection with the description of that organ (stomach, kidney,liver, etc.) Diseases affecting the abdominalcavity are dealt with generally under their own names (e.g. appendicitis).The three most common abdominal surgeries aredescribed below.Exploratory Laparotomy -- This refers to the opening ofthe abdominal cavity for direct examination of its contents, for example, to locate a source of bleeding or trauma. Appendectomy-- Surgical opening of the abdominal cavity and removal of the appendix. Typically performed as definitive treatment for appendicitis, although sometimes the appendix is prophylactically removed incidental to another abdominal procedure.Laparoscopy -- A minimally invasive approach to abdominal surgery where rigid tubes are inserted through small incisions into the abdominal cavity. The tubes allow introduction of a small camera, surgical instruments, and gasesinto the cavity for direct or indirect visualization and treatment of the abdomen.

(2). Abdominoplasty:
Abdominoplasty or tummy tuck is a cosmetic surgery procedure used to make the abdomen more firm. The surgery involves the removal of excess skin and fat from the middle and lower abdomen in order to tighten the muscle and fascia of the abdominal wall. This type of surgery is usually sought by patients with loose tissues after pregnancyor individuals with sagging after major weight loss.Abdominoplasty operations vary in scope and are frequently subdivided into categories. Depending on the extent of the surgery, a complete abdominoplasty can take 1 to 5 hours. A partial abdminoplasty (Mini-Tuck Abdominoplasty) can becompleted between 1 to 2 hours.

(3). Acromioplasty:
Acromioplasty is a arthroscopic surgical procedure of the acromion.Generally, it implies removal of a small piece of the surface of the bone (acromion) that is in contact with a tendon causing, by friction, damage to the latter tissue.

(4). Adenoidectomy:
Adenoidectomy is the surgical removal of the adenoids. They may be removed for several reasons, including impaired breathing through the nose and chronic infections or earaches. The surgery is common. It is most often done on an outpatient basis under general anesthesia. Post-operative pain is generally minimal and prevented with an abundance of icy or coldfoods, though dairy foods such as ice creamshould be avoided, as they coat the back of the throat, encouraging the body to produce phlegm, which can interfere with healing. The procedure can sometimes be combined with a tonsillectomy if needed.Recovery time can range from several hours to two or three days (though as age increases so does recovery time).Adenoidectomy isnot often performed onchildren aged 1-6, as adenoids help the body's immune system.Adenoids become vestigial organs in adults.

(5). Amputation:
Amputation is the removal of a body extremity by trauma orsurgery. As a surgical measure, it is used to control pain or a diseaseprocess in the affected limb, such as malignancy or gangrene.In some cases, it is carried out on individuals as a preventative surgery for such problems. A special case is the congenital amputation, a congenital disorder, where foetal limbs have been cut off by constrictive bands.

(6). Angioplasty:
Angioplasty is the technique of mechanically widening anarrowed or obstructedblood vessel; typically as a result of atherosclerosis. Tightly folded balloons are passed into the narrowed locations and then inflated to a fixed size using water pressures some 75 to 500 times normal blood pressure (6 to 20 atmospheres).Angioplasty has come to includeall manner of vascular interventions typically performed in a minimally invasive or percutaneous method.

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