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•´¯`•)»(Lemon Fruit)«(•´¯`•

Citrus limetta is a species of citrus.
Common names for varieties of
this species include sweet limetta,
Mediterranean sweet lemon, sweet
lemon, and sweet lime. In India, it
is commonly called
sathukudi,mousambi, mosambi, or
Although lemons and limes may
not be what you would choose for
an afternoon snack, we consider
them as powerhouses when we
want to bring out the flavor of
other foods. While bothare
available throughout the year,
lemons are in the peak of their
season around May, June and
August while limes are at their
peak from May through October.
Lemons are oval in shape and
feature a yellow, texturized outer
peel. Like other citrus fruits, their
inner flesh is encased in eight to
ten segments.
Usually smaller than lemons,
limesare oval or round in shape
having a diameter of one to
twoinches with green flesh and
skin. They can be either sour or
sweet depending on the
variety;however, sweet limes are
not readily available in the United
States. Sour limes contain citric
acid giving them an acidic and tart
taste, while sweet limes lack citric
acid and are sweeter in flavor.
Health Benefits
Phytonutrients with Antioxidant
and Antibiotic Effects
Like many of the fruits and
vegetables featured on our
website, lemons and limes contain
unique flavonoid compounds that
have antioxidant and anti-cancer
properties. Of special interest in
limes have been flavonoids called
flavonol glycosides , including
many kaempferol -related
molecules. While these flavonoids
have been shown to stop cell
division in many cancer cell lines,
they are perhaps most interesting
for their antibiotic effects. In
several villages in West Africa
where cholera epidemics had
occurred, the inclusion of lime
juice during the main meal of the
day was determined to have been
protective against the contraction
of cholera. (Cholera is a disease
triggered by activityof the bacteria
called Vibrio cholera ). Researchers
quickly began to experiment with
the addition of lime juice to the
sauce eaten with rice, and in this
role, lime juice was also found to
have a strong protective effect
against cholera.
Several other fascinating research
studies on the healing properties
of lemons and limes have shown
that cell cycles-including the
decision a cell makes about
whether to divide (called mitosis )
or die ( apoptosis -are altered by
lime juice, as arethe activities of
special immune cells called
monocytes .
In addition to their unique
phytonutrient properties,
lemonsand limes are an excellent
source of vitamin C , one of the
most important antioxidants in
nature. Vitamin C is
one of the main antioxidants
found in food and the primary
water-soluble antioxidant in the
body. Vitamin C travels through the
body neutralizing any free radicals
with which it comes into contact in
the aqueous environments in the
body both inside and outsidecells.
Free radicals can interact with the
healthy cells of the body, damaging
them and their membranes, and
also cause a lotof inflammation, or
painful swelling, in the body. This
is one of the reasons that vitamin C
has been shown to be helpful
forreducing some of the symptoms
of osteoarthritis and
Since free radicals can damage
blood vessels and can change
cholesterol to make it more likely
to build up in artery walls, vitamin
C can be helpful for preventing the
development andprogression of
atherosclerosis and diabetic heart
Vitamin C is also vital to the
function of a strong immune
system. The immune system's main
goal is to protect you fromillness,
so a little extra vitamin Cmay be
useful in conditions like colds, flu's,
and recurrent ear infections.
Owing to the multitude of vitamin
C's health benefits, it is not
surprising that research hasshown
that consumption of vegetables
and fruits high in thisnutrient is
associated with a reduced risk of
death from all causes including
heart disease, stroke and cancer.
Limonins Support Optimal Health
In animal studies and laboratory
tests with human cells, compounds
in citrus fruits, including lemons
and limes, called limonoids have
been shown to help fight cancers
of the mouth, skin, lung, breast,
stomach and colon. Now, scientists
from the US Agricultural Research
Service (ARS) have shown that our
bodies can readily absorb and
utilize a very long-acting
limonoidcalled limonin that is
present is citrus fruits in about the
same amount as vitamin C.
In citrus fruits, limonin is presentin
the form of limonin glucoside, in
which limonin is attached to a
sugar (glucose) molecule. Our
bodies easily digest this
compound, cleaving off the
sugarand releasing limonin.
In the ARS study, 16 volunteers
were given a dose of limonin
glucoside in amounts ranging
from those that would be found in
from 1 to 7 glasses of orange juice.
Blood tests showed that limonin
was present in the plasma of all
except one of the subjects, with
concentrations highest within 6
hours after consumption. Traces of
limonin were still present in 5 of
the volunteers 24 hours after
Limonin's bioavailability and
persistence may help explain why
citrus limonoids are potent anti-
carcinogens that may prevent
cancerous cells from proliferating.
Other natural anti-carcinogens are
available for much less time; for
example, the phenols in green tea
and chocolate remain active in the
body for just 4 to 6 hours.
The ARS team are now
investigating the potential
cholesterol-lowering effects of
limonin. Lab tests indicate that
human liver cells produce less apo
B when exposed to limonin. Apo B
is a structural protein that is part
of the LDL cholesterol molecule and
is needed for LDL production,
transport and binding, so higher
levels of apo B translate to higher
levels of LDL cholesterol.
Protection against Rheumatoid
While one study suggests that high
doses of supplemental vitamin C
makes osteoarthritis, atype of
degenerative arthritis that occurs
with aging, worse in laboratory
animals, another indicates that
vitamin C-rich foods, such as
lemons and limes, provide humans
with protection against
inflammatory polyarthritis, a form
of rheumatoid arthritis involving
two or more joints.
The findings, presented in the
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
were drawn from a study of more
than 20,000 subjects who kept
diet diaries and were arthritis-free
when the study began, and
focused on subjects who
developed inflammatory
polyarthritis and similar subjects
who remained arthritis-free during
the follow-up period. Subjects who
consumed the lowest amounts of
vitamin C-richfoods were more
than three times more likely to
develop arthritis than those who
consumed the highest amounts.
scientifically known as Citrus
limon , are more commonly known
as the fruit that evokes images of
sunshine and the sweet smiles of
children standingroadside at their
homemade lemonade stands.
Lemons are oval in shape and
feature a yellow, texturized outer
peel. Like other citrus fruits, their
inner flesh is encased in segments,
with the average lemon having
eight to ten.
While most lemons are tart, acidic
and astringent, they are also
surprisingly refreshing. The two
main types of sour lemons are the
Eureka and the Lisbon. The Eureka
generally has more texturized skin,
a short neck at one end and a few
seeds, while the Lisbon has
smoother skin, noneck and is
generally seedless. Inaddition to
these sour lemons, there are also
some varieties that are sweet in
flavor. One notable example is the
Meyer lemon that is becoming
more popular in both markets and
Limes are a small citrus fruit, Citrus
aurantifolia , whose skin and flesh
are green in color and which have
an oval or round shape with a
diameter between one to two
inches. Limes can either be sour or
sweet, with the latter not readily
available inthe United States. Sour
limes possess a greater sugar and
citric acid content than lemons and
feature an acidic and tart taste,
while sweet limes lack citric acid
content and are sweet in flavor.
There are two general varieties of
sour limes available, the Tahitian
and the Key. Among Tahitian limes
are the egg-shaped Persian and
the smaller, seedless Bearss. Key
limes, famous for the pie
bearingtheir name, are smaller and
more acidic than the Tahitian

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