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The term farming covers a wide spectrum of agricultural productionwork. At one end of this spectrum is the subsistence farmer , who farms a small area with limited resource inputs, and produces only enough food to meet the needs of his family. At the other end is commercial intensive agriculture , including industrial agriculture . Such farming involves large fields and/or numbers of animals, large resource inputs ( pesticides , fertilizers , etc.), and a high level of mechanization . These operations generally attempt to maximize financial income from grain , produce , or livestock .
Traditionally, the goal of farming was to work collectively as a community to grow and harvest crops that could be grown in mass such as wheat , maize , squash , and other cash crops . Centuries later these same farmers took charge of livestock,and began growing food exclusively for the feeding of livestock as well as for the community. With the growth of civilization thefarmer's focus changed from basic survival to that of financial gain. In smaller towns on the outset of civilization the farmer did retain the need to grow their own food, but the financially minded farmer was largely spreading. With the Renaissance came the plantation, a farm primarily worked by others primarily for the gain of the plantation's owner. Then came a new age of industry where the farm could bestaffed by fewer peopleand big machines. This meant a complete revolution for farming.

Types of farms

A business producing tree fruits or nuts is called an orchard ; a vineyard produces grapes. The stable is used for operations principally involved in the training of horses. Stud and commercial farms breed and produce other animals and livestock. A farm that is primarily used for the production of milk and dairy is a dairy farm . A market garden or truck farm is afarm that grows vegetables, but little or no grain. Additional specialty farms include fish farms , which raise fish in captivity as a food source, and tree farms, which grow treesfor sale for transplant, lumber, or decorative use. A plantation is usually a large farm or estate, on which cotton , tobacco , coffee or sugar cane, are cultivated, often by resident laborers.

Types of farming
*. Collective farming
*. Factory farming
*. Intensive farming
*. Protected culture farming
*. Organic farming
*. Vertical farming
*. Fell farming

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