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| Permissibility of Fatiha, Teeja, 10wa and 40wa |



Permissibility of Faatiha
Teeja, Daswaan and Chaliswaan

The reward (Thawab) of physical and financial good deeds is conveyed and received in favour of the other Muslim and it is permissible, in support of which there are many proofs provided by the verses of the Holy Qur'an, AHadith of the Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) and the sayings (statements) of the religious scholars. The Holy Qur'an has stressed upon Muslims to pray for the welfare of other Muslims as brothers and well wishers in the Islamic fraternity; funeral prayer of deceased Muslim is a glaring example in this behalf. In the Mishkaat, Babul Fitan, Babul Malaahim, Chapter Two, there is a saying of Hadrat Abu Huraira:


يضمن لي منكم أن أصلي في مسجد العشاء ، يعني بالأيلة ركعتين أو أربعة ، يقول هذه عن أبي هريرة
Is there any of you who will undertake to pray two or four rak'ahs on my behalf in the mosque of al-Ashshar, stating, "they are on behalf of Abu Hurayrah"



Sunan Abi Dawood, Kitab al-Malaahim, Vol 2, Page 244, Hadith 3754
Shau'ab al-Iman lil Bayhaqi, Bab al Fadail al-Hajj wa al-Umrah, Vol. 9, Page 152, Hadith 3960

From the above narration three clear problems and their solutions can be deduced namely:


To offer physical act of worship (Namaz) with the intention of conveying the thawab of that Namaz to any other person is permissible.
To utter by the tongue praying Almighty Allah to convey the thawab to so and so (by Name) is much better than simple intention.
To offer the Namaz in the Masjid of some righteous saintly person with the intention of receiving more thawab is also permissible.

Fatiha, Teeja (Fatiha made on the 3rd day after a person's death), Daswaan (the 10th day after) and Chaliswaan (on the 40th day after) etc. pertain to the exclusive category of Eesal-e-Thawab and not for receiving any benefit for one's own self! On these occasions Fatiha (recitation of Qur'an a kind of physical deed of goodness) and Sadqah (a mode of financial involvement) are done mainly, rather exclusively for conveying the reward (Eesal-e-Sawab), in favour of the deceased persons whether near and dear ones or some spiritual dignitaries (Awliyal Allah) who are in themselves the fountain heads of blessing and beneficence for their devotees.


In Tafsir Ruh al-Bayan, it is said while commenting on the verse 155 of Surah An'aam:


وعن حميد الاعرج قال من قرء القران و ختمه ثم دعا امن علي دعائه اربعة الاف ملک ثم لايزالون يدعون له و يستغفرون و يصلون عليه الي المساء او الي الصباح
It is reported from Hadrat Aa'raj that the person who completes the recitation of the Holy Qur'an from beginning (at a stretch or with intermittent intervals) then prays for its acceptance along with the fulfillment of his desires in the Presence of Almighty Allah, on that occasion four thousand angels say Aameen and they (the angels) remain engaged in the prayer (Dua) for the betterment and forgiveness of that person from morning to evening or from evening to morning. [Tafsir Rooh al-Bayan, Vol. 3, Page 156/157, Under Verse 155 of Surah al-An'aam]



This very subject has also been mentioned in the book of Imam Nawawi's Kitab al Azkaar, Chapter relating to the Tilawat (recitation of the Holy Quran).

It is evident from the above presented reference that the prayer begged from Almighty Allah on the conclusion of the Completion of recitation of the Qur'an (known as Khatm-e-Quran), is granted by Almighty Allah. The deed of Eesal-e-Sawab is also a dua (invocation) in the Presence of Almighty Allah. This means that if the Eesal-e-Sawab is done when the Tilawat of the Quran has been done in full, it shall be most beneficial both for the person for whom the Eesal-e-Sawab is intended and the person or persons who help completing the reciting of the Quran for that purpose.

In the book Ash'atul Lam'at it is said in the chapter Ziyaratil Qubur (visiting the graves ),


وتصدق کردہ شوداز میت بعد رفتن اداز عالمتا ہفت روز
"After the death of the deceased, the sadqah should be given for seven days". [Ashiat al-Lam'at, Vol. 1, Page 716]



At another place in the some book it is said,

وبعض روایات آمدہ است کہ روح میت مے آید خانہ خورا شب جمعہ پس نظرمی کند کہ تصدق کنند از دے یا نہ
"The soul of the deceased visits its home in the night of Friday to see whether the inmates (relatives) are offering sadqah or not." [Ashiat al-Lam'at, Vol. 1, Page 716]


From this it is seen that at places where breads are distributed for seven days continuously (daily) after the demise of the relative and offer Fatiha regularly on each Thursday, the ceremony has this origin as to its admissibility.



In the book Anwar-e-Sati'ah and Hashiyah Khazanat ar-Riwayaat it is written that

Holy Prophet (Peace and Blessings of Allah be Upon Him) offered sadqah on the third, seventh and fortieth day of the martyrdom of Sayyiduna Hamzah and repeated the same at every sixth months and at the end of the year. [Anwaar-e-Sati'ah, Page 145]



This is the origin and reality of the generally known Teeja, Chaaleewan, Shash Mahi (sixth monthly) and Barsi (yearly) Fatiha among the sunni Muslims.

Imam al-Nawawi Alaihir raHma has said:

Hadrat Anas bin Malik used to gather his family members on the occasion of Khatm al-Quran and offered Fatiha, in the Presence of Allah for the welfare of all. [Kitab al-Azkaar, Baab Tilawatil Qur'an]



Hakeem Ibn Utbah says that

Once Ibn Abi Lubabah invited a group of the people and told them that he had invited them at his home because he was completing the Khatm al-Qur'an on that day so that they might benefit thereby as the dua on that auspicious occasion receives the acceptance from the Almighty Allah. [Kitab al-Azkaar, Baab Tilawatil Qur'an]


It is also reported by Hadrat Mujahid on reliable authority that

Some righteous persons used to gather the people on the occasion of the Khatm al-Qur'an and told them that on this occasion, the Mercy (Rahmat) from Allah descends upon those present there. [Kitab al-Azkaar, Baab Tilawatil Qur'an]


This provides sanction from holding the gathering on the occasions of Teejah, and Cheh'lam (Chaliswan) is a practice among the saintly persons of the Ahlus Sunnah, which is in a sense their sunnah.

In Raddul Muhtar it is said that according to a Hadith:

من قرأ الإِخلاص أحد عشر مرة ثم وهب أجرها للأموات أعطي من الأجرِ بعدد الأموات
If a person recites Surah Ikhlas eleven times and conveys its thawab to the deceased Muslims, then he himself shall receive the thawab equal to the total reward given to the souls of the deceased Muslims. [Raddul Muhtar, Qir'at lil Mayyit, Baab ad-Dafan, Vol. 1, Page 666]



It is said in the Shaami:

و يقرء من القران ماتيسرله من الفاتحة و اول البقرة و اية الکرسي و امن الرسول و سورة يس و تبارک الملک و سوره التکاثر و الاخلاص اثني عشر مرة او احدي عشر او سبعا او ثلاثا ثم يقول اللهم اوصل ثواب ماقرئناه الي فلان او اليهم
One may recite the Holy Qur'an by way of Fatiha, on any particular occasion in the following manner: In the beginning Surah Fatiha, then the first there verses of the Surah Baqrah then Ayat-ul-Kursi, the last three verses of the Surah Baqrah, then Surah Yasin, Surah Mulk, Surah Takathur and in the end Surah Ikhlas the last one recited Twelve times or Eleven ...


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