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px mars hubble - Newest pictures
ana.faye2.msh.mastool.peperonity.net

كوكب المريخ

ﺍﻟﻤِﺮِّﻳﺦ Mars) ﻣﺎﺭﺱ( ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻛﺐ
ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻓﻲ
ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺴﻲ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻲ
ﻟﻸﺭﺽ ﻭﻳﺼﻨﻒ ﻛﻮﻛﺒﺎ ﺻﺨﺮﻳﺎ، ﻣﻦ
ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻷﺭﺿﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻴﻬﺔ
ﺑﺎﻷﺭﺽ.(
ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺮﻳﺦ ﺗﻌﻴﺪ
ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺃﻣﺮﺥ ﺃﻱ ﺫﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ
ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ, ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ ﺛﻮﺭ ﺃَﻣﺮﺥ ﺃﻱ ﺑﻪ ﺑﻘﻊ
ﺣﻤﺮﺍﺀ. ﻭﻗﺪ ﺳﻤﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻛﺐ ﺑﻬﺬﺍ
ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﻧﺴﺒﺔً ﺇﻟﻰ ﻟﻮﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺋﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ
ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﻩ, ﺑﻔﻌﻞ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻏﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪ
ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﺤﻪ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺟﻮﻩ.
ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﻠﻘﺐ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻮﻛﺐ ﺍﻷﺣﻤﺮ. ﺃﻣﺎ
ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﻴﺮ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻓﻴﻌﻴﺪ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻳﺦ ﺇﻟﻰ
ﺍﺳﻢ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﺎﺭﺱ.
ﻳﺒﻠﻎ ﻗﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻳﺦ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ 6800 ﻛﻠﻢ
ﻭﻫﻮ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﺴﺎﻭ ﻟﻨﺼﻒ ﻗﻄﺮ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ
ﻭﺛﺎﻧﻲ ﺃﺻﻐﺮ ﻛﻮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺴﻲ
ﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﻄﺎﺭﺩ. ﺗﻘﺪّﺭ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺘﻪ ﺑﺮﺑﻊ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ
ﺍﻷﺭﺽ. ﻳﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻳﺦ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻓﻲ
ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﻳﺒﻌﺪ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﻤﻌﺪﻝ 228 ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻛﻠﻢ
ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ، ﺃﻱ 1.5 ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ
ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻠﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ.
ﻟﻪ ﻗﻤﺮﺍﻥ، ﻳﺴﻤّﻰ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺩﻳﻤﻮﺱ ﺃﻱ
ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻓﻮﺑﻮﺱ
ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺨﻮﻑ.
ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻮﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻳﺦ ﺍﺣﺘﻮﻯ
ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﻗﺒﻞ 3.8 ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﻨﺔ، ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ
ﻓﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﺘﺪﺍﻭﻟﺔ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎ
ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ. ﺑﻪ ﺟﺒﺎﻝ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺜﻴﻼﺗﻬﺎ
ﺍﻷﺭﺿﻴﺔ ﻭﻭﺩﻳﺎﻥ ﻣﻤﺘﺪﺓ. ﻭﺑﻪ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﺑﺮﻛﺎﻥ
ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺴﻴﺔ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ
ﺍﺳﻢ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﻤﺒﺲ ﻣﻮﻧﺰ ﺗﻴﻤﻨﺎ ﺑﺠﺒﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻤﺐ.
ﺗﺒﻠﻎ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ 27 ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ
ﻭﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﺮﻯ 133- ﺩﺭﺟﺔ
ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ. ﻭﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻏﻼﻓﻪ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺛﺎﻧﻲ
ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮﻭﺟﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﻏﻮﻥ
ﻭﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﻏﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ. ﺭﻣﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻳﺦ
ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻜﻲ ﻫﻮ
♂.
ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻳﺦ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻴﻦ
ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﻴﻦ ﻣﺠﺮﺩ ﻛﻮﻛﺐ ﺟﻨﻴﻦ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻊ
ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻧﻤﻮﻩ، ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺠﺎ ﻣﻦ
ﺍﻷﺻﻄﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺮﺓ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﺟﺮﺍﻡ
ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺷﻬﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺴﻲ
ﻓﻲ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻨﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﺩﺕ ﻟﺘﻀﺨﻢ
ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ. ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻔﺴﺮ
ﺻﻐﺮ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻳﺦ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺭﺽ ﺃﻭ
ﺑﺎﻟﺰﻫﺮﺓ. ﺧﻠﺺ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ
ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ...


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