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27 Pronouns


27 Pronouns
-I, You, He, She, It.
-We, You, They.

-Me, You, Him, Her, It.
-Us, You, Them.

-My, Your, His, Her, Its.
-Our, Your, Their.

-Mine, Yours, His, Hers.
-Ours,Yours, Theirs.

27.1 Personal pronouns
i) Subject pronouns are used as the subjects of verbs. Note that in English the subject cannot normally be omitted.
-I like Mr Smith, He's a good man.

ii) YOU is used for the person (singular) or people (plural) you are speaking to.

iii) YOU can also mean people in general.
-You don't see many people in the town centre at night.

ONE can also be used with this meaning.
-One doesn't see many people in the town centre at night.

iv) THEY can be used to refer to people in general but not the speaker or the person he's speaking to.
-In China they eat a lot of rice.

v) THEY and THEM can be used to refer to singular unknown person -when the sex of that person is unknown.
-Someone has left a book in the classroom.
-If they come back for it, please give it to them.

27.2 Possessive adjectives and pronouns
i) A possessive adjectives is always followed by a noun or noun phrase.
-My red dress is being washed.

ii) A possessive pronoun is used without a noun, when it's clear what the noun is.
-Whose pen is this?
-It's mine.

27.3 Reflexive pronouns
-Myself, Yourself, Himself, Herself, Itself.
-Ourselves, Yourselves, Themselves.

i) Reflexive pronouns are used when the subject and object of a verb are the same.
-I enjoyed myself at the party on Saturday.
-John hurt himself playing football yesterday.

ii) Reflexive pronouns are used to emphasize that person and not anyone else.
When they are used in this sense, they are often placed at the end of the sentence.
-My father built our house himself.

iii) In English we don't use reflexive pronouns for actions which we do by ourselves.
-In the morning I get up and wash before the other members of my family.

An exception is when these actions aren't usual for someone.
-My brother could dress himself when he was two years old.

27.4 ONE
ONE or ONES can be used to avoid repetition of a noun. They are used after an adjective or after THIS/THAT/THESE/THOSE, WHICH or EACH. They cannot replace an uncountable noun.
-Give me that book, please.
-Which one?
-The blue one.
-This one?
-No, that on the the shelf.

i) These are compounds formed with SOME, ANY, NO or EVERY plus THING, BODY, ONE or WHERE.

-something; somebody; someone; somewhere.

-anything; anybody; anyone; anywhere.

-nothing, nobody; no one; nowhere.

-everything; everybody; everyone; everywhere.

ii) All these forms are singular.
-No one knows who stole the money.
-There is nothing in the cupboard.

iii) SOMEONE/SOMEBODY are interchangeable; they have exactly the same meaning.

iv) SOMETHING/SOMEBODY are normally used in the affirmative, not the negative or in questions.
-There is somebody at the door.

ANYTHING/ANYBODY are used only in the negative and in questions.
-Is there anything I can do for you?
-There isn't anyone at home at the moment.

v) NOTE the difference between ANYTHING/ANYBODY and NOTHING/NOBODY. Since NOTHING is already a negative word, it doesn't not require NOT in a sentence. ANYTHING requires NOT when used in a negative sense.
-I have got nothing in my pocket.
-I haven't got anything in my pocket.

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