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First aid

One of the beat ways for the expectant parents and the expecting family to prepare for the unexpected future is bytaking classes in first aid and infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Knowing what to do during the emergency will help them to remaincalm, think quickly and take action positively with confidence so as to save the ailing child.

First aid to handle some of the commoninjuries and emergencies that affect children undera year of age are described here.

Head and Eye Injuries:

Head bumps and eye irritations should be treated with care - babies' developing brains and eyes are very fragile. Even if it doesn't seem serious, it's a good idea to checkwith the doctor.

Skin Wounds:

Whereas most minor cuts can be treated at home; more serious wounds require medical attention. The child may require stitches or a dose of DTP vaccine, which protects against tetanus infection.
In case of minor cuts and scrapes, wash the affected area with soap and water, pat it dry, and then apply an antibiotic ointment (such as bacitracin or Neosporin) and a nonsticky bandage. Keep the wound clean and replace the bandage at least once aday to prevent it from falling off and becominga choking hazard. Call a doctor if the area becomes swollen or red, there is a pus discharge, or the child has a fever or acts ill.
In case of bruises, apply a cold compress (wrapped in a cloth) to decrease pain, swelling, and further bleeding. Call the doctor for large bruises, swelling, ongoing pain, or abdominal bruising.
In case of severe and deep cuts, if the bleeding does not stop in 5 minutes, apply firm pressure with sterile gauze or a clean cloth to the bleeding site. Elevating the injured limb above the heart will help control bleeding. If a sharp object such as a nail is deeply embedded in theskin, don't remove it. Wrap it in bandages (to keep it from moving), and seek medical care.


A baby's airway can be blocked by a small object or risky foods such as nuts, whole grapes, hot dogs, and popcorn. A child who is coughing while choking is able to get some air into the lungs. If she doesn't cough up the object and her cough weakens, she can't make a sound, or she stops breathing, provide one minute of care (as mentioned below), and then call the emergency care.
1. Give five back blows. To do this, first position the infant face down on your forearm, resting your arm on your thigh for support. Support her chin with your hand, and make sure her head and neck are lower than her torso. Then use the heel of your free hand to give her five firm back blows between the shoulder blades.
2. If she doesn't cough up the object, turn her onto her back. Rest her on your forearm, using your thigh to support her body and your hand to steady her head. Make sure that her head and neck are lower than her torso. Give five chest compressions (as in theCPR mentioned in
3. Repeat back blows and chest compressions until the object is coughed up or the baby starts to breathe or cough. See the doctor afterward, even if your baby seems fine.
4. If a choking baby becomes unconscious, deliver two rescue breaths. If the breaths don't go in, the airway is probably blocked. Tilt the baby's head fartherback, lift her chin, and give two more slow rescue breaths. If the breaths still don't go in, give five chest compressions.
5. Look for a foreign object. Open the baby's mouth and look for an object that is blocking the airway. If you see it, use your little finger to remove it. But don’t fish for it in the baby’s mouth.
6. Give another rescue breath. If the chest stilldoes not rise, continue the cycle of five chest compressions, looking for a foreign object, andgiving a rescue breath until help arrives. If the breath goes in, and the chest rises, give a second breath and check for breathing and circulation.


A baby’s skin is far more sensitive than theadult skin. Follow the steps below in case thechild is burnt:
1. Remove the baby from danger and cool the burned area by flushing it with cool water (unless it is an electrical burn). Remove the baby's clothing unless it's stuck to the skin.
2. Loosely cover the burn with clean, dry gauze dressing to reduce pain and preventinfection. Never apply ice directly on the burn, and do not put any ointment on a significant burn, as it can seal in heat. Likewise, stay away from home remedies such as butter, grease, or powder; they don't work to heal the burn, and they can actually cause infection.
3. For a serious burn (second-degree), call medical emergency care. Severe burns can cause loss of fluid fromthe body and breathing difficulties. If the burn has affected a large portion of the baby's body, wrap him in a clean sheet and cover him with a blanket (to keep him warm) after stopping the burn and cooling it with water.
4. For a chemical burn caused by contact with a household product such as paint remover, drain liquids, oven cleaners, or household bleach, call the medical emergency care and flush the area with coolrunning water until help arrives. If possible, remove clothes with any chemical on them.
5.For an electrical burn, such as when a child puts a metal object intoan outlet or bites an electrical cord, call the medical emergency carebut don't cool the burn with water; just cover it with a dry, sterile bandage. Electrical burnsmay appear deceptivelyminor yet can cause severe harm.


In case of any suspicionof poisoning, immediately contact the medical emergency center. If the child vomits instantaneously, turn her on her side to prevent choking. Save some of the vomited material in case it is needed for the analysis.

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