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Less common but still at risk STI

NON-SPECIFIC URETHRITIS (usually called NSU)
NSU only affects men.

Signs and Symptoms
These may include inflammation of a man’s urethra causing pain or burning when passing urine, discharge from the penis or frequent urination.

Transmission
Several different types of infection can cause NSU, most commonly by chlamydia. Very rarely it can result from friction during sex, allergy or excess alcohol.

Diagnosis and Treatment
A doctor or nurse may carry out a physical examination of your genital area and swabs are taken from the penis or urethra. A urine sample will also be taken. NSU is treated easily with antibiotics.

Long-Term Effects
NSU may reappear, but rarely. Serious complications can be inflammation of testicles and reduced fertility.


TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS (sometimes called TV)
Signs and Symptoms
Often Trichomonas Vaginalis has no symptoms but in men and women discharge can occur along with genital soreness, pain when passing urine and pain during sex.

Transmission
Penetrative sex (where the penis enters the vagina, mouth or anus) and extremely rarely sharing moist towels, washcloths, jacuzzis and hot tubs.

Diagnosis and Treatment
Swabs from the urethra or vagina and urine samples will be taken. Women may be given an internal pelvic examination and men may have an external examination of their testicles and scrotum. Antibiotics easily treat TV.

You should not have penetrative sex (where the penis enters the vagina, mouth or anus) until you have returned to the clinic and been given the all-clear by the doctor.

Long-term effects
Complications associated with TV are rare. If a woman is infected when she gives birth, she may pass it on to the baby if it is a girl.

SYPHILIS
Symptoms
Syphilis has three stages:

Primary stage symptoms – sores can develop where bacteria entered the body
Secondary stage symptoms - a rash can develop, warty growths on genitals and a flu-like illness may develop
Latent stage symptoms – if left untreated, over time syphilis can lead to heart, joint and nervous system damage.

Transmission
Syphilis can be passed on during primary or secondary stages through:

Oral, vaginal or anal sex
Skin contact with any sores or rashes
From a mother to unborn child.
It is not usually infectious during the latent stage.

Diagnosis and Treatment
Blood and urine samples will be taken and swabs from sores. A visual examination will be carried out as well as an internal physical examination for women. Syphilis is easily treated by a 2-week course of penicillin injections and/or antibiotic tablets or capsules.

If it is suspected that you have the early infectious stages of syphillis, you should not have oral, vaginal or anal sex. You should also not have any kind of sex involving contact between your partner and any sores or rashes you may have until the treatment is completed.

Once you have completed your treatment, you will be asked to attend the clinic at regular intervals for blood tests.

Long-term effects
In pregnancy syphilis can cause miscarriage or stillbirth and can be passed from mother to unborn child in the womb.

PUBIC LICE
Signs and Symptoms
The most common symptom is itching in the infected areas and it may be possible to see droppings from the lice in underwear (black powder) as well as eggs on pubic or other hair. It is sometimes possible to see lice on the skin.

Transmission
Pubic lice are usually sexually transmitted but can occasionally be transferred by close physical contact or by sharing sheets or towels.

Diagnosis and Treatment
The lice can be seen on physical examination and may be examined under a microscope. Special shampoo or lotion can easily treat the lice.

Your sexual partner should also be checked and treated. Until treatment is completed, you can pass on pubic lice. You should avoid any sexual contact with anyone during treatment.

Long-term effects
It is advisable to have a follow up examination to make sure the lice are gone.

SCABIES
Signs and Symptoms
The main symptom of scabies is an itchy rash on hands, wrists, elbows, underneath arms, abdomen, breasts, genitals and buttocks.

Transmission
Scabies is not necessarily sexually transmitted as any close physical contact can spread the infection.

Diagnosis and Treatment
The rash can be seen on physical examination and may be examined under a microscope. Scabies is easily treated by special shampoo or lotion which you can get from your GP, NHS sexual health (GUM) clinic or you can buy from the chemist.

You should avoid any sexual contact with anyone until the course of treatment is completed.

Long-term effects
You will probably not need to see the doctor, or clinic, again following treatment.

If you think you have been at risk, contact your local NHS sexual health (GUM) clinic and make an appointment.


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