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>It is one of the commonest types of phobic conditions seen in clinical practise.

>It is defined as a phobic disorder that is characterised by an irrational fear of being in places away from familiar settings

=>Some common situations include:

1. Driving
2. Shopping
3. Crowded places
5. Standing in line
6. Being alone
7. Meetings and social gatherings


Agoraphobia still remains a condition of unknown cause.

The condition usually presents itself in early adulthood and is generally set off with the first instance by any unexpected panic attack.

The individual usually describes their first panic attack as 'Sudden' or 'Out of the blue' in nature.

There are various theories being researched to identify the reason for the onset of Agoraphobia.

>Some Common theories considered are:-

1.Cognitive hypothesis.
2. Biological theory.
3. Psychoanalytical theory.

>Certain other factors being considered include:-
1. Stress in life
2. Early experiences with loss of control.
3. Tendency of a person to breathe too quickly.
4. Brain chemicals imbalance.
5. Confusion over the normal symptoms of anxiety.


Agoraphobia, like all other anxiety disorders is characterised by the absence of any brain disease or psychiatric disorder.

>Agoraphobic patients often get very anxious when they are away from home, especially when they are amidst crowds or in situations where they cannot leave easily (eg; A meeting or a crowd).

>They show a marked increase in fear when they are confronted with certain situations or activities.

>Avoidance - individuals start to avoid situations that they feel provoke anxiety.

>Situations - Individuals generally have three common situations they tend to avoid, such as:
1. Distance from home
2. Crowded places
3. Confined places

>As the condition worsens the individual starts avoiding these conditions more vigorously, until it gets so severe that the patients start confining themselves to their homes called as 'Housebound Housewife Syndrome'.

Slowly these objects or situations of phobia become a kind of preoccupation, thus restricting them from all activities so as to counter their phobic fears.


Agoraphobic patients generally try to avoid situations, in order to manage their fears and anxieties.

>Agoraphobic patients, when forced to face phobic situations, start getting very anxious, with or with out panic attacks and often seek treatment.

>The cure for Agoraphobia involves various therapies and drugs.

>Psychological therapy for Agoraphobia:

Behaviour Therapy
Cognitive Therapy
Cognitive -Behaviour Therapy (CBT)
Relaxation Techniques
Neuro -Linguistic Programming (NLP)
Energy Psychology

>Behaviour Therapy:
Behaviour therapy exposes the patient to situations that they fear, it is but not a very effective therapy as the patient compliance is low and the patient tends to get more anxious

>Cognitive Therapy
The patient's are made to examine their thought process and differentiate, for themselves the harmful and unwanted thought patterns, so that they can gradually change their process of thinking and thus overcome their fears.

>Cognitive - Behaviour Therapy (CBT):
The most effective of the treatments, this therapy usually combines two types of psychotherapy: cognitive therapy and behaviour therapy.

>It is conducted with a basic goal being able to rid the patient of unwanted responses and to learn new ways of reacting to situations.


-.Kalmath Weed


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