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As the name suggests, prostate cancer develops from cells of the prostate gland. The prostate gland is about the size of a walnut and is located in front of the rectum, behind the base of the penis, under the bladder. It is found only in men, and produces some of the seminal fluid, which protects and nourishes sperm cells.

The prostate surrounds the upper part of the urethra, the tube that carries urine and semen out of the penis. Nerves located next to the prostate take part in causing an erection of the penis.

When a person is affected by prostate cancer, the cancer cells may spread outside the gland to other parts of the body. Most prostate cancers grow very slowly and never cause symptoms or spread. Autopsy studies show that many elderly men who died of other disease also had a prostate cancer which neither they nor their doctor were aware of. But some prostate cancers can grow and spread quickly. The people most likely to get prostate cancer are men over age 50.

Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in men, exceeded only by lung cancer. It accounts for about 13 per cent of male cancer-related deaths. The cause of prostate cancer is not known.

In the early stagers of prostate cancer usually there are no symptoms. Most prostate cancers are discovered during a routine rectal examination. In the later stages urinary obstruction may be observed accompanied by pain in the low back or pelvis from spread of cancer. Eighty-nine percent of men diagnosed with prostate cancer survive at least 5 years, and 63 per cent survive at least 10 years. Fifty-eight percent of all prostate cancers are found while they are still confined to the prostate.

Thirty-one per cent of prostate cancers have already spread locally (to tissues near the prostate) at the time of diagnosis.

Treatments that remove or damage nerves located next to the prostate nerves can cause erectly dysfunction, also known as impotence. Although early diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer may help some men to live longer, it has no impact on the life span of other men.


What causes prostate cancer is still not known exactly but, researchers have found some risk factors and are making progress toward understanding how these factors cause cells in the prostate gland to become cancerous.

During the past few years, scientists have made great progress in understanding how certain changes in DNA can cause normal prostate cells to grow abnormally and form cancers. DNA is the chemical that carries the instructions for nearly everything our cells do. We usually resemble our parents because they are the source of our DNA. However, DNA affects more than our outward appearance. Some genes (parts of our DNA) contain instructions for controlling when cells grow and divide.

Certain genes that promote cell division are called oncogenes. Others that slow down cell division or cause cells to die at the appropriate time are called tumor suppressor genes. It is known that cancers can be caused by DNA mutations (defects) that turn on oncogenes or turn off tumor suppressor genes. Some people with certain types of cancer have DNA mutations they inherited from a parent. Researchers have recently found that inherited DNA changes in certain genes make them more likely to develop prostate cancer. These genetic changes appear to be responsible for about 10 per of prostate cancers.

DNA mutations related to prostate caner usually develop during a man's life rather than having been inherited before birth.


Some prostate cancers may be found because of symptoms such as slowing or weakening of the urinary stream or the need to urinate more often. These symptoms, however, can also be caused by benign diseases of the prostate. Symptoms of advanced prostate cancer include blood in the urine, impotence, and pain in the pelvis, spine, hips, or ribs. These symptoms, again, may also be present with other diseases.


>Prostate-specific antigen blood test.(PSA)

>Digital rectal examination.(DRE/PR)

> Transrectal ultrasound.(TRUS)

>Prostate biopsy.


If cancer is found in a prostate biopsy, it is graded in order to estimate how fast it is likely to grow and spread. Prostate cancers are graded according to how closely they look like normal prostate tissue.


The most commonly used prostate cancer grading system is called the Gleason system. This system assigns a Gleason grade ranging from 1 through 5 based on how much the arrangement of the cancer cells mimics the way normal prostate cells from glands. If the cancer cell clusters resemble the small, regular, evenly spaced glands of normal prostate tissue, a grade of 1 is assigned. If the cancer lacks these features and its cells seem to spread haphazardly through the prostate, it is a grade 5 tumor.

Cancers with a high Gleason score are more likely to have already spread beyond the prostate gland at the time they are detected. Therefore, the Gleason score along with the blood PSA level and DRE is useful in considering treatment options.


Once prostate cancer has been diagnosed, graded, and staged, there is a lot to consider before you choose a treatment plan. The treatment you choose for prostate cancer should also take into account your age and expected life span, personal preferences and feelings about the side effects associated with each treatment, any other serious health conditions you have, and the stage and grade of your cancer.



[2]:- Radical prostatectomy

[3]:- Retro-Pubic Prostatectomy

a). Radical Perineal Prostatectomy
b). Tran urethral resection of the prostate

[4]:- Cryosurgery

[5]:- Radiation therapy

[6]:- Hormone therapy

[7]:- Chemotherapy

[8]:-Watchful waiting


-. Cyclosporine
-. Cytarabine
-. Daunorubicin


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