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diseaseconditions.peperonity.net

◆ TYPHOID FEVER

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ENTERIC FEVER
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=>GENERAL INFO:
-----------------

Enteric fever is caused by bacteria called Salmonella typhi, or Salmonella paratyphi A or Salmonella paratyphi B.

Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi A, and Salmonella paratyphi B invades tissue and cause septicemia with high temperature known as enteric fever.


=>TRANSMISSION:
----------------

Salmonella is present in food grown in faecal polluted environments.

Waterborne outbreaks are associated with Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi A and Salmonella paratyphi B.
Salmonella are excreted in the faeces of infected humans or animals.

Faeces contamination of ground water or surface waters, as well as insufficiently treated and inadequately disinfected drinking water, are the main causes of epidemic waterborne caused by Salmonella species.

=>PATHOGENISIS
----------------

The extend of infection of Salmonella species depends on the bacterial type and its strain.

Salmonella possesses two antigens or weapons to protect itself and cause destruction, these include

Heat stable cell wall Lipopolysaccharide known as Somatic or 'O' antigens.

Flagellar or H antigens formed from structural proteins, which make up the hair like filaments from the movement of the bacteria.

After ingestion of Salmonella species along with contaminated food, the bacterium overcomes the body's defense mechanism of gastric acidity.

Inside the lumen of the intestine the bacteria multiplies by attaching to the microvilli of the intestinal surface, which leads to destruction of microvilli through which the bacteria enters the cell.


=>SYMPTOMS:
------------

->Severe headache
->Fever
->Chills
->Dry cough
->Rose spots or Rashes appearing on the lower chest and abdomen
->Abdominal tenderness
->diarrhea
->bloody stools
->Anorexia (Loss of appetite)
->Malaise (General discomfort)
->->Fatigue
->Weakness
->Epistaxis (Nosebleed)
->Fluctuating mood.


=>COMPLICATION:
----------------

->Intestinal hemorrhage (Profuse bleeding from the intestine)

->Intestinal perforation and leakage of intestinal juices in to the abdomen leading to peritonitis.


=>DIAGNOSIS:
--------------

->Isolation and Identification of Salmonella species from blood or faeces.
(BLOOD & STOOL CULTURE)

->Widal test.

->Bone marrow culture.


=>TREATMENT:
-------------

->Hopsitalization.
->Plenty of fluid.
->Rest
->Antibiotic treatment by giving Chloramphenicol.

-> Oral Chloramphenicol

-> Severe infections - Intravenous injection of Chloramphenicol

->In Chloramphenicol resistance - Ampicillin, Co-trimoxazole, Ciprofloxacin
.


=>DRUGS:
---------

-.Ofloxacin
-.Ciprofloxacin
-.Norfloxacin
-.Erythromycin
-.Levofloxacin

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