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diseaseconditions.peperonity.net

◆ NOSE BLEEDING

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EPISTAXIS
o0----------------0o

=>GENERAL INFO:
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The nose is a part of the body that is very rich in blood vessels (vascular) and is situated in a vulnerable position on the face. Any trauma to the face can cause bleeding from the nose. This is common in dry climates, or during the winter months when the air is dry and warm from household heaters.


=>CAUSES:
-----------

-> Trauma to the nose (nose picking, foreign bodies, forceful nose blowing).

-> The most common cause of a nose bleed is drying of the nasal membranes.

-> Tumors, particularly malignant tumor of the nose or sinuses.

-> The incidence of nosebleeds is higher during the colder winter months when upper respiratory infections are more frequent, and the temperature and humidity fluctuate more dramatically.

-> Use of "blood thinning medications" called anti coagulants.

-> Recurrent nosebleeds may be a symptom of an underlying disorder such as high blood pressure.

-> Inflammation of the nose or sinuses and cold may cause a nose bleed.

-> Deviated septum (when the partition between your nose is crooked), foreign objects in the nose, or other nasal obstruction may also cause nosebleeds.


=>SYMPTOMS:
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-> Bleeding from one or both nostrils.

-> Frequent swallowing.

-> Sensation of fluid flow in the back of the nose and throat.

=>DIAGNOSIS:
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-> A thorough medical history for previous bleeding, high blood pressure, liver diseases, use of anticoagulants, nasal trauma, family history of bleeding etc. should be taken.

-> Analysis of blood coagulation parameters.

-> Measurement of the blood pressure and X-rays of the skull and sinuses maybe necessary.


=>TREATMENT:
--------------

=>FIRST AID:

Calm the patient if necessary with medication. The patient should sit with the upper part of the body tilted forward and the mouth open so that they can spit out the blood instead of swallowing. Check to see if there is an object inside the victim's nose and remove it if necessary.

=>LOCAL PROCEDURES:

Pinch all the soft parts of the nose together between the thumb and index finger. Hold the nose for at least 5 minutes (timed by the clock). Repeat as necessary until the nose has stopped bleeding. Apply ice (crushed in a plastic bag or washcloth) to nose and cheeks. For dryness of the nose ointments can be applied. Nasal packs are used when conservative methods fail. Cauterization (the application of a heated instrument or caustic chemical to tissue to stop bleeding) may be required if bleeding persists or recurs.
[NASAL PACKING]


=>DO'S & DONT'S
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->Avoid blowing of the nose or putting anything into it. If one feels like sneezing, keep the mouth opened so that the air will escape out the mouth and not through the nose.

-> Do not strain during bowel movements.

-> Try to keep the head higher than the level of the heart.

-> Do not strain or bend down to lift anything heavy.

-> Do not smoke.

-> Stay on a soft cool diet. No hot liquids for at least 24 hours.


=>DRUGS:
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-. Cocaine
-. Plicamycin

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