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Piles are abnormally enlarged and dilated blood vessels ( mainly veins) around the back passage or anus. Piles are also known as "hemorrhoids". Hemorrhoids occur in both men and women most often between the ages of 20 and 50.


->It can be hereditary with congenital weakness of the vein walls.

->In men, due to erect posture there is high pressure in rectal veins.

->Straining by constipation and over purgation.

->Dysentery may aggravate latent hemorrhoids.

->Haemorrhoids are also common among pregnant women. The pressure of the foetus in the abdomen, as well as hormonal changes, cause the haemorrhoidal vessels to enlarge


-> Hemorrhoids cause itching, burning, swelling or pain.

-> Itching may be present due to swelling and irritation produced by the hemorrhoids.

-> Bleeding from the anus is more common with internal than external hemorrhoids. It can occur before, during, or after defecation.

-> Protrusion of the hemorrhoids from the anus occurs frequently. This usually occurs after defecation, prolonged standing, or unusual physical exertion.

-> If bleeding is profuse patient may have anemia.


Diagnosis made out from a good history and rectal examination. A hollow, lighted tube, known as a PROCTOSCOPE, is also often used to look at piles and examine the lining of the rectum usually helps in establishing a diagnosis.



A diet high in fiber and bulk can prevent constipation.

Cleaning the peri-anal area with mild, unscented soap and water - available as wipes or pads - after each bowel movement can reduce swelling and itching.

There are numerous creams and suppositories which can help relieve the irritation and pain symptoms of relatively minor hemorrhoids, (eg. hydrocortisone).

If the pain is not too severe, conservative management consisting of stool softeners, topical pain relieving creams and Sitz baths (sitting in a tub or bathtub of warm water) may suffice.


Hemorrhoids that bleed can be treated by various methods, including rubber band ligation, injection sclerotherapy, infrared coagulation or surgical hemorroidectomy.

(A): Rubber band ligation

It is a procedure in which a small rubber band is placed at the base of the internal hemorrhoid with a special applicator. The rubber band cuts off the blood supply to the hemorrhoid and the hemorrhoid falls off in about four to five days.

(B): Infrared coagulation

Uses a infrared light source to coagulate the dilated veins of the hemorrhoid. This causes the hemorrhoids to shrink since blood does not flow through the coagulated blood vessels.

(C): Injection sclerotherapy

It involves injecting an irritating chemical into the hemorrhoid which causes inflammation and closure of the veins, thereby shrinking the hemorrhoid.

(D): Hemorrhoidectomy:

In cases of large hemorrhoids, a surgery known as hemorrhoidectomy (removal of the hemorrhoid) is done.


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