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diseaseconditions.peperonity.net

◆ HYPERTHYROIDISM

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GRAVE'S DISEASE
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=>GENERAL INFO:
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("Hyper" means "over" in Greek). The thyroid hormones regulate many aspects of our metabolism, eventually affecting how many calories we burn, how warm we feel, and how much we weigh.


=>ROLE OF THYROID GLAND:
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Thyroid hormones are produced by the thyroid gland. This gland is located in the lower part of the neck, below the Adam’s apple. The gland wraps around the windpipe (trachea) and has a shape that is similar to a butterfly formed by two wings (lobes) and attached by a middle part (isthmus). These hormones also have direct effects on most organs, including the heart. Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which there is an excessive amount of thyroid hormones circulating in the blood because of an overactive thyroid gland. In healthy people, the thyroid makes just the right amounts of two hormones, T4 and T3, which have important actions throughout the body. These hormones regulate many aspects of our metabolism, eventually affecting how many calories we burn, how warm we feel, and how much we weigh. In short, the thyroid "runs" our metabolism. These hormones also have direct effects on most organs, including the heart which beats faster and harder under the influence of thyroid hormones.


=>CAUSES:
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Many factors contribute to the development of this disease. They are given below:

-> Graves diseases.

-> Multi-nodular goiter.

-> Solitary thyroid nodule.

-> Thyroiditis

-> Iodine induced.

-> Thyroid hormone excess from extra thyroidal sources.



=> SYMPTOMS:
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Many symptoms foretell about the possibilities of developing hyperthyroidism.

-> Goiter or an enlargement of thyroid gland in the neck.

->Weight loss
-> Increased appetite.

-> Vomiting.

-> Diarrhea.

-> Breathlessness on exertion.

-> Emotional liability.

-> Increased sweating.

-> Heat intolerance.

-> Loss of hair.

-> Menstrual disorders.

-> Exopthalmous -
(A condition when the eyes have a straight look protruded unusually out.)



=>DIAGNOSIS:
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Clinical diagnosis will help, but biochemical diagnosis is confirmatory. Blood hormone levels of thyroxine,T3 and T4, are elevated.


=>TREATMENT:
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-> Antithyroid drugs.

-> Surgery :-
Subtotal thyroidectomy.

-> Radio Iodine: -
For recurrence following surgery


=>DRUGS:
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-> Carbimazole
-> Propylthiouracil
-> Iodine

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