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INTRODUCTION TO OPERATION RESEARCH

||| industrial engineering |||

Definition and Scope:

Application of "scientific approach" in the study of Military Operations during World War-II resulted in a dramatic changes it's stand in the war. The scientists were asked to devise a well plan to increase the productivities and success rates on the battle ground. They have prepared algorithmic flow of scarce resources in an effective manner to various processes of military interest. Later on its use in other departments of sciences, goverment institutions and industries.

So we can say OR is concerned in co-ordinating as well as controlling various vital operations or activities within an organision. It can also be regarded as use of mathematical and quantitative techniques to substantiate the decisions being taken.

It takes tools from subjects like (i) Mathematics, (ii) Statistics, (iii) Engineering, (iv) Economics, (v) Psychology and other various minor subjects and uses them to know the "consequences" of possible alternative activities. But, it can also be described as "decision analysis".

So, we can also define OR as the science that is concerned with scientifically deciding how to design and effectively operate man machine systems usually under unfavorable conditions and with the help of scarce resources.

DEFINITION
" Making decisions or taking actions is central to all operations research applications."

O.R. is the art of winning wars without actually fighting. - Aurther Clarke

O.R. is concerned with scientifically deciding how to best design and operate man-machine systems usually under conditions requiring the allocation of scarce resources. -O.R. Society of America

O.R. is the art of giving bad answers to problems which otherwise have worse answers. -T.L. Saaty

O.R. is applied decision theory. It uses any scientific, mathematical or logical means to attempt to cope with the problems that confront the executive, when he tries to achieve a thorough-going rationality in dealing with his decision problems. -D.W. Miller and M.K. Starr

O.R. is a scientific approach to problems solving for executive management. -H.M. Wagner

O.R. is the application of scientific methods, techniques and tools to problems involving the operations of a system so as to provide those in control of the system with optimum solution to the problem. -Churchman, Ackoff and Arnoff

O.R. is the study of administrative system pursued in the same scientific manner in which systems in Physics, Chemistry and Biology are studied in natural sciences.

O.R. is scientific methodology-analytical, experimental, quantitative-which by assessing the overall implication of various alternative courses of action in a management system, provides an improved basis for management decisions. –Pocock

O.R. is the application of the theories of Probability, Statistics, Queuing, Games, Linear Programming, etc. to the problems of war, govt. and industry.

O.R. is the use of scientific methods to provide criteria for decisions regarding man machine systems involving repetitive operations.


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