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Crop growing


Agriculture, also called farming or husbandry, is the cultivation of animals,plants,fungi, and other life forms for food,fiber,biofuel,drugs and other products used to sustain and enhance human life.[1] Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the development of civilization. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years, and its development has been driven and defined by greatly different climates, cultures, and technologies. However, all farming generally relies on techniques to expand and maintain the lands that are suitable for raising domesticated species. For plants, this usually requires some form of irrigation, although there are methods of dryland farming.


Livestock are raised in a combination of grassland-based and landless systems, in an industry that covers almost one-third of the world's ice- and water-free area. In the developed world,industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture has become the dominant system of modern farming, although there is growing support forsustainable agriculture, including permaculture and organic agriculture.
Until the Industrial Revolution, the vast majority of the human population labored in agriculture. Pre-industrial agriculture was typically subsistence agriculture/self-sufficiency in which farmers raised most of their crops for their own consumption instead ofcash crops for trade. A remarkable shift in agricultural practices has occurred over the past century in response to new technologies, and the development of world markets. This also has led to technological improvements in agricultural techniques,


such as theHaber-Bosch method for synthesizing ammonium nitrate which made the traditional practice of recycling nutrients withcrop rotation and animal manure less important.
Modernagronomy,plant breeding,agrochemicals such aspesticides and fertilizers, and technological improvements have sharply increased yields from cultivation, but at the same time have caused widespread ecological damage and negative human health effects.Selective breeding and modern practices in animal husbandry have similarly increased the output of meat, but have raised concerns about animal welfare and the health effects of the antibiotics,growth hormones, and other chemicals commonly used in industrial meat production.Genetically modified organisms are an increasing component of agriculture, although they are banned in several countries.





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