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What to look out for:

• Bleeding wound
• Shock

What to do:
1. Apply direct pressure with your hand, making sure there are no embedded objects in the wound.

2. Apply a sterile dressing or clean pad to the wound.

3. If possible, raise and support the injured limb.

4. Leaving the original dressing in place, bandage it securely.

5. Treat the casualty for shock.

If there is an object embedded in the wound, do not apply direct pressure but press firmly on either side of the object with sterile pads high enough to clear it, so you can secure the bandage without pressing down on the object.

Don’t waste time on finding pressure points and don’t use a tourniquet, as this can lead to gangrene.



What to look out for:

• Cold, pale, clammy skin
• Weak and rapid pulse
• Pain
• Thirst
• Confusion
• Unconsciousness
• Coughing up blood
• Blood in the urine or faeces
• Severe bruising

What to do:
1. Treat the casualty for shock by lying them down and raising their legs.

2. Send for an ambulance and monitor the casualty’s breathing and pulse. Be ready to start artificial ventilation or cardiopulmonary resuscitation, if necessary.

Be careful not to over-heat casualty. If they complain of being cold, only use one blanket.


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