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☹Status of Mothers☹

☹"A child must always serve his mother even if she has been an outcast."
"The professor is equivalent of ten teachers, the father is equal to hundred professors, the mother exceeds a thousand fathers."
"All other sins are expiable but he who has cursed the mother shall never be liberated."
"An outcast father may be forsaken, but not the mother, she is never an outcast to the child".
"One conquers this world through respect for the mother, the middle religion (the firmament) through respect for the father, and through service to the preceptor one gains the region of Brahman."
"Janani Janmabhumischa Svargadapi Gariasi" i.e. The mother and the motherland are superior to heaven
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☹Divorce
Hinduism in general disapproves of divorce. A divorced woman is generally forced to live as a widow. However in theological terms, both the Manusamhita and the Arthashastra state that if a husband is impotent, a traitor, an ascetic or anoutcast, or missing for a prescribed number of years, the wife take her property ('Stridhan'), leave him without blame and marry again. The Arthashastra also declares that in other circumstances, divorce can takeplace only by mutual consent.
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☹Property rights
Arthashastra and Manusamhita are sources about the woman's right to property or ‘Stridhan’, (literally meaning, property of wife). It is of two types: maintenance (in money or land), and anything else like ornaments given to her by her family, husband, in-laws, relatives and the friends of hers and her husband. This becomes the wife's personal property and she has exclusive rights over this property (money, land and personal property). Manu further subdivides this into six types - the property given by parentsat marriage, given by husband's family when she is going to her husband’s house, given by her husband out of affection (not maintenance which he is bound to give), and property given separately by brother, mother and father [Manu IX 194]. Pre-nuptial contracts are alsomentioned where the groom would agree to give a set amount of brideprice to both parents and the bride. Such property belonged to the wife alone and was not to be touched by the groom or his family or her parents except in emergencies(in sickness, in famine, threatened byrobbers, or for performing holy deeds).
Scriptures insist that a mother's property belongs solely to the daughters [Manu IX 131], in order of preference: unmarried daughters, married but poor daughters, married and rich daughters. When a father died, unmarried daughters had to be given a share in their father’s property, equal to one-fourth from every brother's share [since it is assumed that the married daughter had been given her share at marriage] [Manu IX. 118]. If the family has no sons, the (appointed) daughter is the sole inheritor of the property [Manu IX 127].


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