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Vitreous Enamel

Vitreous enamel, also
porcelain enamel in
US English, is a material
made by fusing
powdered glass to a
substrate by firing,
usually between 750
and 850 °C (1,380 and
1,560 °F). The powder
melts, flows, and then
hardens to a smooth,
durable vitreous coating
on metal, or on glass or
The term "enamel" is
most often restricted
to work on metal,
which is the subject of
this article. Enameled
glass is also called
"painted". Fired
enamelware is an
integrated layered
composite of glass and
The word enamel
comes from the Old
High German word
smelzan (to smelt) via
the Old French esmail.[1]
Used as a noun, "an
enamel" is a usually
small decorative object,
coated with enamel
Enameling is an old and
widely adopted
technology, for most of
its history mainly used
in jewelry and
decorative art.
Since the 19th century
the term applies also to
industrial materials and
many metal consumer
objects, such as some
cooking vessels,
dishwashers, laundry
machines, sinks, and
tubs. ("Enamelled" and
"enamelling" are the
preferred spellings in
British English, while
"enameled" and
"enameling" are
preferred in American

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