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∆░Indian State Uttar Pradesh░∆

About Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh (U.P.) literally translated as "Northern Province" in English is a state situated in northern India. Lucknow is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh and Kanpur is economic and industrial capital of U.P.
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The state is surrounded by the country of Nepal and Uttarakhand to the north, Delhi and Haryana to the northwest, Rajasthan to the west, Madhya Pradesh to the southwest, Bihar to the east and Jharkhand to the southeast.
The state is spread over an area of 243,286 sq km and has 75 districts. It is the 5th largest Indian state by area comprising of over 199,581,477 inhabitants as of the 2011 census, becoming the most populous state in the country. Uttar Pradesh has a number of historical, religious, natural and man-made tourist destinations, such as the Taj Mahal, Kaushambi, Varanasi, Kushinagar, Chitrakoot, Lucknow, Jhansi, Meerut, Allahabad and Mathura.
History
Uttar Pradesh has a rich historical heritage and plays a significant role in defining the present date Uttar Pradesh. The history of Uttar Pradesh can be traced back to the Aryan period when they arrived and started establishing settlements in the central country they called "Madhyadesh". Uttar Pradesh was ruled by numerous kingdoms in history. Uttar Pradesh saw the advent of Lord Buddha, around the middle of the 1st millennium BC, who spread the Buddhism religion. Lord Buddha delivered his first sermon in Sarnath, Uttar Pradesh. During this time the region was under the Magadha rule. The rule subsequently moved on to the Nanda dynasty and then later to the Mauryas.
The historical background of the state is associated a lot with the beginning of the Muslim rule. This period saw the defeat of the Rajputs. The state's prosperity was at its peak during the Mughal rule, especially during the rule of Emperor Akbar. During the Mughal rule, the region saw the construction of some magnificent monuments whose names have been engraved in the history forever.
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Facts on Uttar Pradesh
Some quick facts on Uttar Pradesh are given below.
Facts on Uttar Pradesh
State CapitalLucknow
Population199,581,477
Area (sq. km)243,286
Languages SpokenHindi and Urdu
ReligionsHinduism, Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Jainism
State BirdSarus crane
State AnimalSwamp deer
State TreeSaal
State FlowerPalash
State DanceKathak
State SportField hockey
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As time went by, Uttar Pradesh saw the decline of Mughal rule and the beginning of the British rule. The influence of Mughals was limited to the Doab region. The state of Uttar Pradesh had a significant role in the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857. A number of kingdoms have reigned over the state of Uttar Pradesh, they include:
NandaMauryanRashtrakuta
MagadhaGuptaGurjara
SungaKushanPala kingdoms
Mughal
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Geography and Climate of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh has a total area of 243,286 sq km and is situated in the northern part of India sharing international borders with Nepal. The Himalayas are located in the north part of the state and the plains cover most of the state. U.P. can be separated into three different hypsographical regions. The first one is the Himalayan region in the North. It has an extremely rugged and varied terrain. The topography varies to elevation ranging from 300m to 5000m. The second is the Gangetic Plain in the centre. It has highly fertile alluvial soils and a flat landscape which is dotted by numerous lakes, rivers, etc. The third are the Vindhya Hills and Plateau in the south. It has a hard rock Strata and a diverse topography of plains, hills, valleys and plateau. Water is limited in this region. The state shares its borders with the following states in India:
Himachal PradeshHaryanaJharkhand
UttarakhandMadhya Pradesh Chhattisgarh
DelhiRajasthanBihar
The major rivers of Uttar Pradesh are the Yamuna, Ganges, Ghaghara and Sarayu. Other than agricultural importance, these rivers bear a lot of spiritual significance. The weather of the state has primarily subtropical features. The state experiences four seasons and has a humid temperate climate.
Uttar Pradesh has a tropical monsoon type climate, with variations in altitudes. The Himalayan region is cold, while the weather in the plains varies in different seasons. The state has three distinct seasons. The winter season is from October to February; the summer season is from March to Mid-June; the rainy season is from June to September.
Rainfall in the plains is heaviest in the east with floods becoming a recurring problem, causing damage to crops, property and life. Summers are Hot and dry, with average temperature of 45°C accompanied by dust laden winds. Monsoons receive around 85 percent of the average annual rainfall of 990 mm. There is slight fall in temperature on rainy days. Winters are cold with temperatures dropping down to 4 °C and fog disrupts conditions in some areas of the state.
Economy of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh is the second largest Indian state by economy and holds the third largest economy (2011-12) in India, with a GDP of 708,000 crore rupees. The largest parts of the state's economy are the agriculture and service industries. The service sector includes travel, tourism and hotel industry, real estate, financial and insurance consultancies. The leading occupation in Uttar Pradesh is agriculture, where wheat is the principal food crop and sugarcane the main commercial crop. Approximately 70% of the country's sugar comes from Uttar Pradesh. The state has localized and large industries manufacturing products like steel, textiles, electronics, leather, cables, engineering products, automobiles, railway coaches and wagons, electrical equipment, etc. The state also has many small-scale industrial units. U.P. is also attracting foreign direct investment in the software and electronics fields, making Noida and Lucknow a major hub for Information Technology industry.
Society and Culture
The culture and the roots of the state's society lie in the roots of the traditions, literature, art and history of the state. Uttar Pradesh has a multi-hued culture which has flourished in the course of time. It has been blessed with much cultural diversity. The state has various holy shrines and pilgrim places which are visited by devotees. The two pious rivers, Ganga and Yamuna which flow through these states are mentioned in the Indian mythology.
Uttar Pradesh is one of the top tourist destinations in India. The city of Agraholds one of the Seven Wonders of the World, Taj Mahal. Varanasi is considered to be one of the oldest cities in the world. The Kumbh Mela takes place in U.P. where over ten million Hindu pilgrims gather together to bath in the holy river. It is declared as the largest religious gathering of human beings in the world.
The state has an ancient dance and music tradition. Kathak which is a classical dance form grew and flourished here. The folk heritage includes songs called rasiya, which represent the divine love of Radha and Shri Krishna. Other folk dances or theater forms are Raslila, Ramlila, Nautanki, Khayal, Qawwali, etc
Religious practices and festivals are an integral part of the society and culture of the state, as they are across India. Many festivals are celebrated in the state irrespective of caste and creed. The most important Hindu festivals are Diwali, Holi, Dussehra, Navratri, Eid, Mahavir Jayanti and Buddha Jayanti amongst others.
Languages
A number of texts and hymns of Vedic literature were composed in the state of Uttar Pradesh. The texts comprises of the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and also the oldest scriptures of Hinduism. The state is sometimes referred as the "Hindi heartland of India". Hindi became the official language in the language Act of 1951. In 1989 an amendment to the act made Urdu as another native language of U.P. The major native languages of the state are Awadhi, Braj Bhasha, Bundeli, Kannauji and Khariboli.
Demographic of Uttar Pradesh
As of March 1, 2011, the state of UP is home to more than 199.5 million people which makes it the top-ranking state in the country in terms of population. If the state were considered as a distinct nation, it would have ranked as the fifth most populated country in the globe, just after Indonesia, USA, India and China. As laid down by the census performed in 2001, the population of the state is represented by the following communities:
1.Approximately 80% are Hindus
2.About 18% are Muslims
3.Other communities include Buddhists, Sikhs, Jains and Christians.The state covers a total area of 243,286 sq km or 93,933 sq miles. The state of Uttar Pradesh houses various traditionally significant and historic cities like Varanasi, Allahabad, Lucknow, Kanpur, Gorakhpur, and Agra. Varanasi, formerly named as Kashi, ranks among the most sacred religious sites for the followers of Hinduism.
In addition, the popular tourist destinations include Ayodhya (the birthplace of Lord Rama), Jhansi, Lalitpur (the place which houses the earliest Vishnu mandirs in India), Mathura (the birthplace of Lord Krishna), Moradabad, Meerut, Bareilly, Aligarh, Muzaffarnagar, Ghaziabad, and Noida.
Uttar Pradesh houses Agra which is famous all over the world for the Taj Mahal. This historic monument is a symbol of love and one of the Seven Wonders of the World and a world heritage site as well. The biggest city in Uttar Pradesh is Kanpur which is famous for its leather industry.
Given below are the names of the prominent metropolitan cities in Uttar Pradesh.
LucknowKanpurAllahabadVaranasiNoidaGhaziabadAgraMeerut
Divisions of Uttar Pradesh
Allahabad DivisionFaizabad DivisionMirzapur Division
Agra DivisionBasti DivisionKanpur Division
Bareilly DivisionJhansi DivisionSaharanpur Division
Aligarh DivisionDevipatan DivisionMeerut Division
Chitrakoot DivisionLucknow DivisionVaranasi Division
Azamgarh DivisionGorakhpur DivisionMoradabad Division.
Districts of Uttar Pradesh
Given below are the names of the 75 districts of the state:
AgraBastiMaharajganjGhaziabad
FirozabadSant Kabir NagarJalaunHapur
MainpuriSiddharthnagarJhansiMeerut
MathuraBandaLalitpurMirzapur
AligarhChitrakootAuraiyaSant Ravidas Nagar
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