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∆░About Jammu and Kashmir░∆

Jammu & Kashmir (J&K) is the northern most state in India. It is surrounded on the north by Afghanistan and China, on the east by China, on the south by the state of Himachal Pradeshand the state of Punjab in India, and on the west by the North-West Frontier Province and the Punjab Province of Pakistan. J&K covers an area of 222,236 sq km (85,805 sq mi).
Jammu and Kashmir are really three regions: the foothill plains of Jammu; the lakes and blue valleys of Kashmir rising to alpine passes, the high altitude plains and starkly beautiful mountains of Ladakh which lies beyond those passes. The Indus River flows through Kashmir and the Jhelum River rises in the northeastern portion of the territory.
Kashmir possesses a more equable climate than that of southern and central India. The beautiful Vale of Kashmir is a noted resort region. Srinagar is Jammu and Kashmir's summer capital and Jammu is the winter capital.
Jammu and Kashmir Facts
Below is a table representing important facts aboutJammu and Kashmir
Facts on Jammu and Kashmir
Date of
Formation26 October 1947
Size222,236 sq km
CapitalSrinagar ( in Summer) and Jammu (in Winter)
RiversChenab, Jhelum, Indus, Zanskar, Suru, Nubra, Shyok
Forests &
National ParkDachigam NP, Hemis High Alititude NP
LanguagesUrdu, Hindi, Punjabi, Dogri, Kashmiri, Balti, Ladakhi, Purig, Gurji, Dadri
Neighbours StateHimachal Pradesh, Punjab
State AnimalHangul
State BirdBlack-Necked Crane
State TreeChinar
State FlowerLotus
History of Jammu and Kashmir
The state of Jammu and Kashmir which had earlier been under Hindu rulers and Muslim Sultans became part of the Mughal Empire under Akbar. After a period of Afghan rule from 1756, it was annexed to the Sikh kingdom of Punjab in 1819. In 1846 Ranjit Singh handed over the territory of Jammu to Maharaja Gulab Singh. After the decisive battle of Sabroon in 1846, Kashmir also was handed over to Maharaja Gulab Singh under the Treaty of Amritsar. British supremacy was recognized until the Indian Independence Act 1947.
When all the states decided on accession to India or Pakistan, Kashmir asked for standstill agreements with both. In the meantime the state became the subject of an armed attack from Pakistan and Maharaja acceded to India on 26th October, 1947 by signing the instruments of accession. India approached the then UN in January 1949. Another round of war between the two countries in 1965 was followed by the Tashkent Declaration in January 1966. Following the liberation movement in the former eastern wing of Pakistan, Pakistan attacked India in December, 1971. It was followed by the Shimla Agreement in July, 1972. A new line of control was delineated bilaterally to replace the ceasefire line between the two countries in Jammu and Kashmir. Kashmir has been in the centre of contention between India and Pakistan ever since. Separatist movements have torn the peaceful fabric of the state for over a decade.

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