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The Himalayan Ranges

हिमालय पर्वतमाला

The Himalaya Region

Divided in 3 parts:
A. The Himalayan Ranges
B. The Trans- Himalayas
C. Eastern Himalayas
A. The Himalayan Ranges
Has ridge-valley topography
Have extensive plateaus like Latah, Cherrapunji and Shillong
Have three longitudinal sections
The Greater/ Inner/Higher Himalayas or Himadri
Average height- 6000m; Average Breadth- 120 to 200km
Core of the mountains are consist of Achaean rocks like granite, gneisses
Covered with snow for almost whole year
Have asymmetrical slope with steep south slope and gentle north slope
Continuous from Indus George (Nanga Parvat) to Dihang
Important Passes:
Burzil Pass, Zoji La Pass (J&K)
Bara Lacha La, Shipki La (Himachal Pradesh)
Bomdi La (Arunachal Pradesh)
Thag La, Niti Pass, Lipi Lekh-La (Uttranchal)
Jelep La and Nathu La (Sikkim)
Important Peaks:
Mount Everest (8848m); Kanchenjunga (8598m); Lhotse (8501m); Dhaulagiri (8172m); Makalu (8481m); Nanda Devi (7817m); Badrinath (7138m)
Important trade routes: (Hindustan Tibet Road) connecting Shimla � Gartok and Kalimpong near Darjeeling with Lhasa, Tibet
The Outer Himalaya/ Shiwaliks or Sub-Himalayas
From Potwar Basin to Brahmaputra Valley/ Tista River in East
Height : 1000-1500m ; Width: 15-50km
Region is ill drained, highly dissected (due to cross section of rivers) and made of alluvial deposits
Valleys are called doons which dried up and formed plains; like Dehradun, Kota(Uttaranchal), Kotli(Jammu)
Formed after the formation of Himalayas
The Middle/ Lesser/Lower Himalayas or Himachal
Composed of metamorphic rocks and sedimentary rocks
Major Himalayan tourist locations are situated here like Shimla, Mussorie
Northern slopes have thick vegetation whereas Southern slopes are rugged
Average Height -3500 to 5000m; Av. Width- 60 to 80km
Important ranges
Pir Panjal (in Kashmir; longest range; extends from Jhelum to upper Beas; also contains volcanic rocks)
Dhaola Dhar (Shimla), Mussorie (2000-2600m), Nag Tiba and Mahabharata Range (continuation of Mussorie range; in Nepal)
Important Passes: Pir Panjal Pass, Golabghar Pass and Baniha Pass( used by Jammu Srinagar Highway)
B. The Trans Himalayas/ Tibetan Himalayan Range
Important ranges:
Karakoram (northern most range; forms frontiers with Afghanistan and China, Zaskar, Latah and Kailash ( highest peak is Mount Kailash; called Gangdise in Chinese; and offshoot of Latah range)
Mansarover Lake under care of Kailash and Karakoram
Important Peaks: K2 is the highest Peak in India (8611m; called Godwin Austen by British and Qogir by China); Broad Peak (8047m)
Latah Plateau : highest Plateau of India; elevation of 5000m above sea level
C. The Eastern Hills/ Purvachal
Located in eastern part of India; from Arunachal Pradesh to Mizoram
Forms boundary with Myanmar ; Patkai Bum separates AP and Myanmar; Naga Hills separates Manipur and Myanmar
Patkai Buma and Naga Hills forms watershed between India and Myanmar
Saramati(3826m) is the highest peak of Naga Hills; Blue Mountain(2157m) is the highest point in Mizo Hills
Regional Division of Himalayas
Punjab Himalayas:
Between Indus and Satluj river(560km); also called Kashmir or Himachal Himalaya due to presence of large portion of Himalayas in this region
Important ranges: Karakoram, Latah, Pir Panjal, Dhaula Dhar and Zashar
Kumaon Himalayas:
Between Satluj and Kali river (320km)
Source of Ganga and Yamuna Lies here
Eastern part of these hills is called Himalaya Proper and Western Part is called Garhwal Himalaya
Famous lakes: Nanital and Bhimtal
Important peaks: Nanda Devi, Gangotri, Badrinath, Kedarnath, Trisul
Nepal Himalayas
Between Kali and Tista River (800km)
Tallest section of Himalayas i.e. Mount Everest, Kanchenjunga, Lhotse lies here and most of the portion lies in Nepal
Assam Himalayas:
From Tista to Brahmaputra river (720km)
Height less than Nepal Himalayas i.e. these are part of Lesser Himalayas; steep southern slopes
Important peaks are Kulu Kangri, Namcha Barwa
Glaciers
Maximum development of glaciers in Karakoram range
Total precipitation in western Himalayas is less
Largest glacier outside polar and sub polar regions: Siachen Glacier in Nubra Valley; followed by Fedchenko Glacier, then Hispar Glacier
The Godwin Auster Glacier drains on three sides of K2
Longest Glacier in Pir Panjal range : Sonapani Glacier
Largest outside Karakoram: Rongbuk Glacier on north side of Himalayas
Syntaxian Bend: the hairpin shaped bend at North west and North East extremes of Himalayas; formed by the force exerted by Aravalis and Shillong Plateau
Glaciers of Kashmir Himalayas descend up to 2400m above sea level.


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