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india map of soils - Newest pictures

Soils of India

भारत की मिट्टी

Soils of India

A. Alluvial Soil:
Deposited by Indus and Brahmaputra
Highly porous, very fertile and agricultural
Lack nitrogen
Present in entire Northern Plains and Eastern Coastal Plains
Consist of Potash, Phosphoric acid and Lime
Two types: Khadar (New alluvium and porous)
Bhangar (Old alluvium, has Kankar and found in Doabs)
B. Black Soil:
Also called Regur or Black cotton soil
Has capacity to hold moisture, very fertile
Made up of lava flows and develop cracks in hot weather
Found in Deccan Plateau, along Krishna Godavari Valley, Plateau of Maharashtra, MP and Chhattisgarh
Closely related to Red soil, mixture of red and black soil found in parts of South India like Coimbatore, Madurai and Tamil Nadu
C. Red and Yellow Soils:
Have light texture, porous and need irrigation for cultivation
Found on crystalline igneous rocks in area of low rainfall in East and South part of Deccan Plateau
Have Reddish color due to diffusion of iron and is Yellow in color in hydrated form
D. Laterite Soil:
The end product of decomposition
Have low fertility and acidic in nature
Laterization: removal of Silica and over concentration of oxides of iron and aluminum
Found in area with high temperature and heavy rainfall
Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu
Useful for growing tea and coffee
E. Arid Soil:
Salt content is very high i.e. alkaline
Lack humus and moisture, rich in minerals
Lower horizon occupied by Kankar
Blows from Coastal region and Indus Valley
Found in Western Rajasthan, South Punjab and North Gujrat
F. Forest Soil:
Acidic and rich in organic contents
Found where sufficient rain forests available
Area of Himalayas, Jammu and Kashmir.

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