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Women Wearing Trousers


Those parts of a responsible person\´s body which are haram for him (or her) to open and show others and for others to look at while in namaz or everytime are called Awrat parts. Men and women were commanded to cover their awrat parts through the suras of Ahzab and Nur, which were revealed in the third year of the Hegira. In Hanafi and Shafi\´i Madhhabs a man\´s awrat parts for namaz are between lower part of his navel and lower parts of his knees. The knees are awrat in Hanafi and the navel is awrat in Shafi\´i. The namaz performed with these parts open is not acceptable. When performing the namaz, it is sunnat for men to cover their other parts [arms, head], [and to wear socks if a long robe or a gown is not available]. It is makruh for them to perform the namaz with these parts exposed.
All parts of free women, except their palms and faces, including their wrists, outer parts of their hands, hanging parts of their hair and under their feet are awrat for namaz, in Hanafi. There are also valuable books saying that outer parts of hands are not awrat. According to them, it is permissible for women to perform namaz while outer parts of their hands up to wrists are bare. But, for having followed all the books, it is better for women to perform namaz wearing a gown with sleeves long enough, or a head cover large enough, to cover their hands. There are (savants) who said that women\´s feet were not awrat in namaz, but those same savants said that it was sunnat to cover and makruh to open them when performing namaz and when going out. [It is written in the book Kadihan that hanging parts of hair are like feet]. If one-fourth of a man\´s or woman\´s awrat part remains bare as long as one rukn, the namaz becomes annulled. If a smaller part remains ex posed, the namaz does not become nullified, but it becomes makruh. For instance, the namaz of a woman one-fourth of whose foot has remained bare will not be sahih. If she herself uncovers it, her namaz becomes annulled immediately. [See second chapter!]. It is written in Umdat-ul-Islam, \´A woman\´s namaz which she performed with bare heelbone, ankle, neck or hair is not accept able. Thin tissue that lets the shape or color of the thing under it be seen is equal to none.\´ [Please see seventeenth chapter!] In Shafi\´i, a woman\´s whole body is awrat all the time other than her two hands and her face.
Hadrat Ibni \´Abidin \´rahmatullahi \´alaih\´ says in Radd-ul-mukhtar:
It is fard to cover one\´s awrat parts outside of namaz as well as when performing namaz. It is tahrimi makruh to perform namaz by covering oneself with silk or with usurped or stolen clothes. However, since a person has to cover himself, a man can use something made of silk, if he cannot find something else. It is fard to cover oneself when one is alone, too. A person who has clean clothes is not permitted to perform namaz naked in the dark even when he is alone. When alone and not performing namaz, it is fard for women to cover between their knees and navels, wajib to cover their back and bellies, and adab to cover their other parts. When alone in the home they can busy themselves around with their heads bare. When there is one of the eighteen men that a woman can show herself to, it is better for her to wear a thin headdress. When alone, one can open one\´s awrat parts only when necessary, e.g. in a toilet. It has been said (by savants) that it is makruh, or that it is permissible or it is permissible when at a small place, to open one\´s awrat parts when one is alone and making ghusl. When not performing namaz, it is necessary to cover oneself even with clothes smeared with najasat.
It is written in Al-Fiqh-u-alal-Madhahibil-Arba\´a, \´The four Madhhabs do not exactly agree on the parts of body men and women have to cover when they perform the namaz or on the parts which are haram for men to show one another, for men to show women, and for women to show their mahrams. However, it is haram in all the four Madhhabs for women to show men and female non-Muslims their bodies other than their faces and inside and outside their hands, and for these people to look at them\´. In the Shafi\´i Madhhab, on the other hand, their faces and hands are awrat (and therefore must be covered) in the presence of men who are namahram to them. It is permissible for women to open their faces and palms to men who are namahram to them, yet men are not permitted to look lustfully at faces or palms of those women who are namahram to them, no matter whether they are Muslims or disbelievers. When there is no necessity, it is makruh to look without lust at those parts of women that are permissible to look at, e.g. at faces of namahram women, at pictures of their awrat parts, at awrat parts of children that have learned to speak. Awrat parts of those children that have not started to talk yet are only their saw\´atayn [private parts]. It is not permissible to look at the private parts of boys until they are ten years old and of girls until they become attractive, and later, to look at all their awrat parts. Animals do not have awrat parts. Also, it is haram to look lustfully at boys\´ faces, yet it is permissible to look at them without lust even if they are beautiful.
It is written in Fatawa-i Khayriyya, \´When there is the danger of fitna, a father can keep his beautiful discreet son who has reached the age of puberty in his own home and under his own discipline. He may not let him go out on a travel or for education or on hajj (pilgrimage) without a beard. He protects him like a woman. But he does not veil him. In streets there are two devils near every woman. And there are eighteen devils near a boy. They try to mislead those who look at these. It is fard for a boy to obey his parents\´ licit instructions. When there is no danger of fitna, a father cannot force his discreet son who has reached puberty to stay at home. In the Shafi\´i Madhhab, on the other hand, their faces and hands are awrat (and therefore must by covered) in the presence of men who are namahram to them.\´
[It is written in the second volume of Majma\´ul-anhur that our Holy Nabi stated, \´On the day of Judgment melted hot lead will be poured into the eyes of those who look lustfully at the faces of women who are namahram to them.\´ Stating the afflictions incurred by the eyes, Qadizada, who explained the book Birghiwi Vasiyetnamesi, says that Allahu ta\´ala declares in the thirtieth ayat of Surat-un-Nur, \´O My Messenger, tell the believers not to look at harams and to protect their awrat parts against harams! Tell those women who have iman not to look at harams and to protect their awrat parts from committing haram!\´
It is written in Riyad-un-nasihin that Rasulullah declared in his last wada\´ (farewell) hajj, \´The eyes of a person who looks at a namahram woman lustfully will be filled with fire and he will be flung down into Hell. The arms of a person who shakes hands with a namahram woman will be tied around his neck and then he will be sent down to Hell. Those who talk with a namahram woman lustfully without any necessity will remain in Hell a thousand years for each word.\´ Another hadith declares, \´looking at one\´s neighbor\´s wife or at one\´s friends\´ wives is ten times as sinful as looking at namahram women. looking at married women is one thousand times as sinful as looking at girls. So are the sins of fornication.\´
It is written in the book Bariqa that the hadiths \´Three things (when looked at) put varnish on the eyes: looking at a verdure, at a stream, at a beautiful face\´ and \´Three things strengthen the eyes: Tingeing the eyes with kohl, looking at verdure and at a beautiful face\´ state the use of looking at people who are halal to look at. In fact, looking at namahram women and girls weakens the eyes and darkens the heart. As informed by Hakim, Baihaki, and Abu Dawud, a hadith-i marfu conveyed by Abu Umama \´radiallahu \´anh\´ declares, \´If a person, upon seeing a namahram girl, fears Allah\´s torment and turns his face away from her, Allahu ta\´ala will make him enjoy the taste of worships.\´ His first seeing will be forgiven. A hadith declares, \´Those eyes that watch the enemy in a jihad made for Allah\´s sake or that weep for fear of Allahu ta\´ala or that do not look at harams will not see Hell fire in the next world\´].
Seven or ten year old attractive girls as well as all girls who have reached the age of fifteen or the age of puberty are equivalents to women. It is haram for such girls to show themselves with bare head, hair, arms and legs to namahram men, or to sing to them or to talk to them softly and grace fully. Women are permitted to talk to namahram men seriously in a manner that will not cause fitna when there is necessity such as buying and selling. So is their opening their faces when among men. It is gravely sinful for women to go out with bare head, hair, arms and legs, to let their voice be heard by namahram men without necessity, to sing to them, to let them hear their voices through films or records or by reading Qur\´an-al karim or by reciting the mawlid or the adhan, [It is haram for women and girls to go out with dresses that are thin or tight or of fur, wearing their ornaments such as ear-rings and bracelets without covering them, wearing like men, cutting their hair short like men. Therefore, it is not permissible for them to wear trousers, not even ample ones. Trousers are men\´s clothing. In hadith ash-Sharifs, which exist in Targhib-us-salat, our Holy Nabi has \´accursed those women who dress themselves like men and those men who ornament them selves like women.\´ Tight trousers are not permissible even for men. For in this case the shapes of private parts can be seen from the outside. Furthermore, it has not been an Islamic custom, neither of old nor now, for women to wear trousers. It has come from the irreligious, from those who do not know the Islamic way of attirement. Harams cannot be Islamic customs even if they have spread and settled. It is declared in a hadith that he who makes himself resemble disbelievers will be on their side. Trousers can be worn under the mantle, yet the mantle must cover the knees as if there weren\´t trousers under it. Baggy trousers, being very ample, can be good dressings for women, too, at places where they are customary. If they will cause fitna at places where they are not customary, it is not permissible to wear them. Great Islamic scholar Qadi Sanaullah-i PaniPuti, in explaining the seventh advice at the end of the book Tafhimat by Shah Waliyyullah-i Dahlawi, says, \´Of old, it used to be an Islamic custom to go out wearing a long shirt, wrapping oneself up with a large towel, wearing clogs or things like that. But now it would be ostentation to go out with such things on at places where they are not customary. Our Holy Nabi has prohibited ostentation and making fame. We must dress ourselves with things that are customary among believers. We must not keep ourselves aloof.\´ So is the case with a woman\´s going out with a dress with a veil at places where it is customary for women to wear ample mantles. In addition, causing an Islamic attirement to be mocked at, she will be sinful. See also the last two pages of the fifty-sixth chapter of the third part of the Turkish original].
Whether in namaz or outside namaz, it is fard to cover one\´s awrat parts lest others will see from the sides, but it is not fard to cover them from oneself. If one sees one\´s own awrat parts when ...
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