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A benign epithelial neoplasm in which the cells from zsrecognizable glandular structures or in which they are clearly derived form glandular structures or in which they are clearly derived form glandular epithelium.


Term applied to chemotherapy or hormone therapy given after local treatment, in tumours where dissemination is undetectable but can be assumed to have occurred. If effective, It should lead to an increase in cure rate or overall disease-free survival.


In microbiology refers to growing living or occur-ring in the presence of molecular oxygen. Bacteria that require oxygen to survive (aerobic bacteria).


The load against which the cardiac muscle exerts its contractile force, i.e. the peripheral vascular tree.


A drug that has affinity for and in some way activates a receptor when it occupies it.

When another individual acts as the donor.


Lacking molecular oxygen. Growing living or occurring in the absence of molecular oxygen, pertaining to an anaerobe.


A radiographic technique where a radio-opaque contrast material is injected into a blood vessel for the purpose of identifying its anatomy on X-ray.


An immunoglobulin molecule that has a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which it interacts only with the antigen that induced its synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially plasma cells), or with antigen closely related to it.


Any substance, organism or foreign material recognized by the immune system as being ‘non-self’ which will provoke the production of a specific antibody.


These are detected on fixed human neutrophils.
There are two types:-

Antibodies directed against proteinase 3 (PR3-ANCA), formerly called cytoplasmic or cANCA. Present in 90% of patients with Wegener’s granulomatosis.
Antibodies directed against myeloperoxidase, formerly called perinuclear or pANCA. Present in 60% of some other vasculitides, such as microscopic polyangiitis and Churg-Strauss syndrome. Also found in inflammatory bowel disease which not associated with a vasculitis.


Represent a wide spectrum of autoantibodies. They are non-specific and may occur at low titre (e.g. 1:10) in healthy individuals.

An enzyme or other organic substance that has the ability to counteract the damaging effects of oxygen in tissues. It has been suggested that anti oxidant vitamins such as Vitamin E may provide protection against certain diseases, including atherosclerosis.


A disturbance of the ability to use language, whether in speaking, writing or compre-hending. It is caused by left frontoparietal lesions, often a stroke.


Hair loss form areas where it is normally present.


A drug that binds to a cell receptor and does not activate it.


Loss of the ability to carry out familiar purposeful movements in the absence of paralysis or other motor or sensory impairment.


It is due to failure of coordination of complex muscular movements despite intact individual movements and sensation.


Thinning (e.g. of the skin).


An antibody that reacts with an antigen which is a normal component of the body.


when the patient acts as his or her own source of cells.


Requires only one affected parent to have the trait to pass it on to offspring.


Mutation carried on an autosome (i.e. a chromosome not involved in sex determination) that is deleterious only in homozygotes ( identical alleles of the gene are carried). Both affected parents must have that trait to pass it on to their offspring.


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