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A malignant neoplasm arising form epithelium.


The passage of a small catheter through a peripheral vein ( for study of right-sided heart structures) or artery (for study of left-sided heart structures) into the heart, permitting the securing of blood samples, measurement of intracardiac pressures and determination of cardiac anomalies.


Uses radiotracers (injected intravenously) which diffuse freely into myocardial tissue or attach to red blood cells.

Thallium-201 is taken up by cardiac myocytes. Ischaemic areas (produced by exercising the patient with reduced tracer uptake are seen as cold spots when imaged with a ¡ camera.


Developing a necrotic center.

(cluster differentiation)

Antigens on the cell surface that can be detected by immune reagents and which are associated with the differentiation of a particular cell type or types. Many cells can be identified by their possession of a unique set of differentiation antigens, e.g. CD4,CD8.


An abnormal breathing pattern in which there are periods of rapid breathing alter-nating with periods of no breathing or slow breathing.


Positively chronotropic means to increase the rate of contraction of the heart, negatively chronotropic is the opposite.


A population of identical cells or organisms that are derived form a single cell or ancestor nad contain identical DNA molecules.


Broadening or thickening of the tips of the fingers and toes with increased lengthwise curvature of the nail and a decrease in the angle normally seen between cuticle and fingernail.


Something that is present at birth. It may or may not be genetic (inherited).


Inability to copy simple draw-ings: often seen in hepatic encephalopathy, when the patient is unable to copy a five-pointed star.


Any condition, especially a disease or current treatment, which renders some particular line of treatment undesirable.


It is synthesized in the liver and produced during the acute-phase response. It is quick and easy to measure and is replacing mea-surement of the ESR in some centres.


Dried exudates on the skin.


Immunolobulins that precipitate when cold or during exercise. They may be monoclonal or polyclonal, e.g. mixed essential cryoglobulinaemia, and result in a cutaneous vasculitis or occasionally a multisystem disorder.


A disease of obscure or unknown origin.


CT combines the use of X-ray images into a two-dimensional cross-sectional image. With helical or spiral CT scanning, computer interpolation allows reconstruction of standard transverse scans or images in any preferred plane.


Solubel messenger molecules which enable the immune system to communicate through its different compartments. Cytokines are made by many cells, such as lymphocytes (Iymphokines) and other white cells (interleukines). Examples of cytokines, other than interleukins, include tumour necrosis factor (TNF), interferons and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF).


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