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Genetically determined iso-antigens present on the memberanes of nucleated cells. They incite an immune response when grafted on to genetically disparate individuals, and thus determine the compatibility of cells in transplantation.


DNA remnants in peripheral RBCs seen postsplenectomy, in leukaemia and megalo-blastic anaemia.

Human histocompatibility antigens determined by a region on chromosome 6. There are several genetic loci, each having multiple alleles, designated HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DP,-DQ and –DR. The susceptibility to some diseases is associated with certain HLA alleles (e.g.HLA-B27 in 95% of patients with ankylosing spondylitis), although their exact role in aetiology is unclear.


The abnormal multiplication or increase in the number of normal cells in normal arrangement in a tissue.


The enlargement or overgrowth of an organ or part due to an increase in size of its constituent cells.


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