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The lips, either the lips around the mouth (the oral labia) or the lip-like external female genitalia .


The larger (major) outside pair of labia (lips) of the vulva (the female external genitalia).


The smaller (minor) inside pair of labia (lips) of the vulva (the female external genitalia).


Childbirth, the aptly-named experience of delivering the baby and placenta from the uterus to the vagina to the outside world. There are two stages of labor. During the first stage (called the stage of dilatation), the cervix dilates fully to a diameter of about 10 cm. In the second stage (called the stage of expulsion), the baby moves out through the cervix and vagina to be born.


Acronym for Lentigines, Atrial myxomas, Mucocutaneous myxomas, and Blue nevi.


A type of minimally invasive surgery in which a small incision (cut) is made in the abdominal wall through which an instrument called a laparoscope is inserted to permit structures within the abdomen and pelvis to be seen. The abdominal cavity is distended and made visible by the instillation of absorbable gas, typically, carbon dioxide. A diversity of tubes can be pushed through the same incision in the skin. Probes or other instruments can thus be introduced through the same opening. In this way, a number of surgical procedures can be performed without the need for a large surgical incision. Most patients receive general anesthesia during the procedure.


An operation to open the abdomen.

The word "laparotomy" was first used to designate this operation in 1878 by an English surgeon, Thomas Bryant. The word has an interesting derivation. It was compounded from Greek roots "lapara" referring to "the soft parts of the body between the rib cage and the hips" and "tome" meaning "a cutting" = a cutting into that area.


Abbreviation standing for laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis, a kind of laser eye surgery designed to change the shape of the cornea to eliminate or reduce the need for glasses and contact lenses in cases of severe myopia (nearsightedness).


An eye that diverges in gaze. A lazy eye is formally called strabismus. A lazy eye (strabismus) can be due to esotropia (cross-eyed) or to exotropia (wall-eyed). The danger of the condition is that the brain comes in time to rely more on one eye than the other and that part of the brain circuitry connected to the less-favored eye fails to develop properly, leading to amblyopia (blindness) in that eye.


Lactate dehydrogenase.


(Low-density lipoprotein): A molecule that is a combination of lipid (fat) and protein. Lipoproteins are the form in which lipids are transported in the blood.


Leprosy, a chronic granulomatous infection caused by a bacterium which affects various parts of the body, including in particular the skin and nerves. (Granulomatous refers to the formation of granulomas, inflammatory nodules that are usually small, granular, firm, and persistent.) The bacterium responsible for leprosy is called Mycobacterium leprae or, for short, M. leprae. (Hansen disease).


Female homosexual. The name "lesbian" comes from the Greek island of Lesbos in the Aegian Sea where in antiquity the women were said to be homosexual. The poet Sappho who lived on Lesbos (circa 600 BC) was a lesbian in both geographic location and sexual orientation.


Cancer of the blood cells. The growth and development of the blood cells are abnormal. Strictly speaking, leukemia should refer only to cancer of the white blood cells (the leukocytes) but in practice it can apply to malignancy of any cellular element in the blood or bone marrow, as in red cell leukemia (erythroleukemia).


A white pupillary reflex. When one shines a bright light on the pupil, it normally appears red. In leukocoria, the light makes the pupil look white. This occurs with a number of eye diseases including congenital cataract and retinoblastoma (a malignancy of the retina).


A benign fatty tumor.


The eye worm, a parasite that lives in humans and other primates. People contract the parasite when bitten by infected deer flies.


LUMBAR PUNCTURE.Also known as a spinal tap, an LP is a procedure whereby spinal fluid is removed from the spinal canal for the purpose of diagnostic testing. It is particularly helpful in the diagnosis of inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system, especially infections, such as meningitis. It can also provide clues to the diagnosis of stroke, spinal cord tumor and cancer in the central nervous system.


Referring to lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell. Also refers to tissue in which lymphocytes develop.


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