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Obligation of Fasting

The rule for Fasting is similar to Namaz and is Farz-e-Ain and those who reject to believe it as obligatory (Farz) is a Kafir and those who miss it without genuine reason is a big sinner and will receive punishment in hell. Those children who have the strength should be made to keep a fast and strong boys and girls should be forced to keep a fast (a few slaps not with a stick) [Durr-e-Mukhtar]. Fasting for the whole month of Ramadan is obligatory.

Description of fasting and age for beginning

According to Shariat, the definition of a fast is make the intention to fast for the sake of Allah from the break of dawn to sunset and to refrain from eating, drinking or having sexual intercourse. For fasting, a woman has to be clean from menstruation or bleeding after childbirth meaning, the fast will not count for a woman on her period or still bleeding after childbirth. It is obligatory for a woman on her period or bleeding after childbirth to fast after her state of bleeding is over and she is clean from it, meaning to make Qaza for the missed Roza. Fasting is not obligatory for children or for an insane person as long as they remain insane for the whole month of Ramadan, and if they gain sanity any period in the middle and it is still within the allocated time for intention, then they must make the intention and fast from that day onwards and the Qaza is necessary for the whole month, for example, if a person was insane from the first of Ramadan and gained sanity on the twenty ninth day from the break of dawn until midday then they will have to perform Qaza for whole month´s fasts [Radd-ul-Mohtar].

Allocated time for the intention of Fasting

Rule: The fasts of Ramadan, fixed time promised fasts, voluntary, Sunnat, Mustahhab, and Makrooh fasts, the time for the Niyyat is from sunset upto midday and if an intention is made from any time between this allocated time then the Fast will count but it is better to make the intention from night-time. Except for these six types of fasts all other Fasts (such as, Qaza for Ramadan, Qaza for Nafl, non fixed time promised fasts, compensation Roza i.e. Kaffara, Fasting for your sins and Roza for Tamattao) the time is from sunset upto the beginning of the break of dawn not after this and the mentioning of the exact fast being performed is necessary, for example, I am keeping a fast for the 28th missed Ramadan Roza, or I am keeping a promised fast for such and such a thing being fulfilled [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
Rule: The intention for the Roza must be made before midday and if it is made as soon as the sun reached midday then the fast will not count [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].

The meaning of the intention

Rule: Just as it was explained for other forms of worship, intention means to fix a firm thought in your heart, it is not necessary to say the intention, in the same way the intention for the fast is done the same way, however, it is better to say it with the tongue. If the intention is made at night then say ´I have made the intention for the fast of Ramadan for Allah which 1 will keep tomorrow´ and if the fast is made before midday then say ´ I have made the intention for the fast of Ramadan for Allah which I will keep today´ [Johra, Bahar].
Rule: If the intention is made in the day (before midday) then it is necessary to make the intention that I have been fasting from the break of dawn and if you make the intention that I will start fasting from now not from the break of dawn, then the Roza will not count [Johra, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].

Fasting on doubtful days

Rule: The rule for fasting on the thirtieth of Shabaan when you are not sure whether it is the thirtieth of Shabaan or the first of Ramadan, then to fast with the sole intention of Nafl is allowed but to fast with the intention that if it is the first of Ramadan then it is my first Ramadan Roza and if it is not the first of Ramadan then it is a Nafl Roza then this is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi. However, if the thirtieth falls on a day where you always fast on that day then it is better to fast on that day, for example, if you fasted every Thursday and the thirtieth of Shabaan was on a Thursday then it is better to fast that day as a Nafl fast [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar etc.].
Rule: On a day where there is uncertainty then you should wait until midday and if the news of seeing the moon arrives then fast that day and if no news arrive then eat and drink [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
Rule: To fast at the end of Shabaan for only one or two days is Makrooh and if you fast for three or more days then it is not Makrooh. Rule: To fast on the day of Eid is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi, also the same rule applies on fasting on Bakr-e-Eid and also on the eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth of Zil Hajj.
Rule: To fast for Sunnat or Nafl Roza for only one day is Makrooh-e-Tanzihi, for example, to fast on the tenth of Moharram is Sunnat but to fast only on that day is Makrooh and if you fast on the ninth then there is no problem and there is also no problem in fasting on the tenth and eleventh. Rule: It is Makrooh-e-Tanzihi for a woman to fast a Nafl Roza without the permission of her husband.

To make a promise to fast

Rule: If you made a promise to fast if your prayer was fulfilled, then that fast become Wajib as soon as your prayer is fulfilled. Rule: If you was fasting a Nafl Roza and you broke it then to perform it´s Qaza is Wajib.


The Holy Prophet Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam has stated that start fasting by seeing the moon and finish fasting ( celebrate Eid) by seeing the moon, and if there is cloud then finish Shabaan by completing thirty days [Bukhari, Muslim]. He has also reported that do not start fasting unless you see the moon and do not stop fasting until you see the moon and if there is cloud and you cannot see the moon then complete the thirty days [Bukhari, Muslim].

Which months is it Waiib to see the moon ?

Rule: It is Wajib-e-Kifaaya to see the moon for five months. These are Shabaan, Ramadan, Shawwal, Zil Qad and Zil Hajj [Fatawa-e-Razvia].
Rule: Attempt to see the moon on the twenty-ninth of Shabaan in the evening and if you can see it then keep fast the next day and if you can´t then complete thirty days of Shabaan and then start Ramadan [Hidaya, Alamgih, Bahar].

Proof of moon when skies are not clear

Rule: If the skies are not clear meaning there is cloud or smoke then only the proof of Ramadan will be counted if one Muslim who is sane and is an adult and is pious and a follower of Shariat, then his oath will be accepted, whether the person is a male or female. Except for the beginning of Ramadan all other month´s proof has to be given by either two men or one man and two women and they all have to be pious and they have to say ´I bear witness that I have seen the moon personally´ then the proof of the moon will be accepted [Hidaya, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Baharetc.].

Definition of a pious person

The definition of a pious person in this text is a person who refrains from large sins and does not make a habit of committing small sins and is a person who does not perform acts which are against the respect of society such as eating whilst walking in the town.

Definition of a person following Shariat

A person who by looking at them follow the Shariat but you are unaware of his hidden activities [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
Rule: Whoever sees the moon and is a pious person then it is Wajib for them to give oath that night. Rule: If the moon is seen in the village by a person and there is no Islamic judge or ruler then the people of the village should be gathered and the oath should be given and if the person giving oath is a pious person then it is necessary for the village people to fast the next day.
Rule: When the sky is not clear then the proof for Eid has to be given by a Muslim, sane, adult, pious and a follower of the Shariat and there has to be either two men or one man and two women and only then the oath will be accepted [Hidaya, Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.].

Proof of moon when skies are clear

Rule: It the skies are clear then until a lot of people do not give witness the oath will not be accepted (whether it be for Ramadan, Eid or any other month). The question remains as to how many people there should be, then this is upto the Islamic judge and when he is satisfied with the amount of people then he will declare it official. If the witnessing is given because the moon has been seen outside the city or from a high place then only one pious person´s oath can be accepted for Ramadan [Hidaya, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar]. However, we say that because nowadays people are lazy and do not bother going to look for the moon then except for Eid all the other month´s moon witnessing when the skies are clear should be accepted if two Muslims have given oath.

Giving an oath when seeing the moon

When giving oath it is necessary to say ´I bear witness´ and without these words the oath cannot be accepted. However, due to´ bad skies and clouds for the oath of the moon for Ramadan if only ´I have seen with my eyes the moon for this Ramadan today or I saw it last night´ is sufficient.
Rule: If some people come and say ´the moon has been seen in such a place or give witness that there has been a sighting of the moon (but have not seen the moon themselves) in such a place, or give witness that such and such a person has seen the moon or say that the judge of such a town has ordered Ramadan or Eid tomorrow then they are all incorrect methods and cannot be accepted [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
Rule: If only the judge or Imam has seen the moon alone for Eid then he can´t celebrate or give order to celebrate Eid as this is not allowed [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
Rule: If the moon was seen in a particular city and a group of people came from that city and stated the news that Ramadan has begun on such a day and people have started fasting from that day and the news is common then this is sufficient for people in this town as proof [Radd-ut-Mohtar, Bahar].
Rule: A person saw the moon alone for Ramadan or Eid but the judge did not accept his statement or oath then it is Wajib for him to fast the next day and if he doesn´t or has broken the fast the Qaza is necessary [Hidaya, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Alamgiri].
Rule: If the moon is seen during the day whether it be before or after midday that moon is for the next day, meaning if the moon is seen on the thirtieth day of Ramadan then it means the next day is the first of Shawwal and not the current day and therefore the fast must be completed. In the same way if the moon is seen during the day of the thirtieth of Shabaan, then Ramadan will begin the next day and the current day is the thirtieth of Shawwal and therefore fasting is not necessary [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar]. Rule: If the moon is seen in one place then this moon isn´t just for that place but for all the world, however, the rule applies to the other places only when there has been a witness about the sighting of the moon, i.e. someone has given oath or the judge that has ordered the seeing of the moon gives oath or a group of people have took the news from where the moon was sighted and have stated whether the people in their town have kept a fast or celebrated Eid. Rule: Proof cannot be accepted if the news are via a telegram or telephone or radio because even if it is correct it is only news and not an oath ...
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