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TEN FATWAS FROM THE GREAT ISLAMIC SCHOLAR OF INDI

IMAM AHMED RIDA KHAN BARELVI

Al-Sheikh Al-Mufti Imam Ahmad Rida Khan Barilawi, in his fatwa book Fatawa al-Haramain, answers twenty-eight questions. All of these fatwas are in conformity with the knowledge of the Ahl as-Sunnat ´ulama´. Ten of these fatwas are given below for their auspiciousness:

Question 1: ´The British spies in India, who call themselves ´Nayashira´. They believe that Jabrail (´alaihi ´s-salam), angels, genies, the Satan, heavens, the mujiza of Miraj, Hell and Paradise exist and that bodies will get alive again as Muslims believe. Yet they give false meanings to the ayats that deal with these subjects, as some of the people called Batiniyya do. They say that these things are not made of matter but they are conceptual and imaginative. They say that nothing can exist outside customs and physical laws. Thus they deny that Allahu ta´ala can create many things outside the laws of nature. They do not believe in mujizat, and they explain them away according to what they see and learn in nature. They say that it is haram and cruelty to use as slaves the captives taken from among non-Muslims in the jihad performed for spreading Allah´s religion and that it is a thing done by the savage. Though it was defined in all heavenly religions, they claim that Allah has not commanded it. They do not believe any of the tafsir and hadith books. They claim that all their contents have been invented by ´ulama. They say, ´The Qur´an remains the sole truth in our hands. We interpret the Qur´an according to our new information. We do not believe what the early Muslims understood from it or what has reached us from them.´ Can those who say so be called ´Muslims´ or ´Ahl al-Qibla´ even if they say that they are Muslim, utter kalimat ash-shahada and perform salat towards the qibla? Moreover, these spies claim that they themselves are the real Muslims and that what they tell is the pure Islamic religion. Shall we call them ´Muslim´ or ´non-Muslim´? Shall we consider their words as wrong and falsified?´

Answer 1: They are not sincere at all. I swear by Allah, they have no connection with Islam. They are enemies of Islam fed by the British. They are the worst of non-Muslims and murtads, because they deny the things that are known to be indispensable in religion. Their saying kalimat ash-shahada and professing that the Kaba is the qibla do not show their being believers or Ahl al-qibla. None of the ´ulama´ and books of itiqad and fiqh has permitted alteration of the indispensable, apparent and open religious teachings.



Question 2: ´It is understood that they are British spies. What would you say about those who, after understanding their teachings and heresy, call them Muslims, or even regard them as ´ulama´ of Islam and authorities on religion, or praise them with the terms that have not been used for the superiors of Islam yet, and, by mentioning their names, say, ´They are the elect of our time. Their books are invaluable for the youth. Their writings prove their quality of perfection. They are the pillars of our religion and the guards of Islam?´ What would you say about those who praise them as such, write, publish and advertise their books as the ´books of superiors of religion´?´

Answer 2: One who does not believe in one of the things indispensable in Islam becomes a kafir. One who has suspicion of such a person´s not being a kafir and in that he will not be punished in Hell eternally is a kafir, too. That the latter, too, is a kafir is openly written in the books Bazaziyya, Durr al-mukhtar, Qadi Iyad´s Shifa, Imam an-Nawawi´s Rawda and Ibn Hajar al-Makki´s Al-alam. It has been unanimously declared by the ´ulama´ of Islam that it also makes one kafir to have doubt that it is infidelity (kufr) if somebody does not regard a Christian, a Jew or a dissenter from Islam as a kafir. This unanimity is written in the above-mentioned books. While one become a kafir out of doubting in the other´s being a kafir, it should be pondered well how the one who regards him as a Muslim or, even, praises him with the terms reserved for the ´ulama´ of Islam will be. From these words of ours, we should understand well the situation of those who consider such people as ´ulama´ of Islam and praise and spread their speeches and writings filled with kufr. Praise or effort to disseminate or to advertise shows consent and love. Consent to kufr causes kufr. Consent to kufr does not mean to want the kafir to remain in kufr but to love his kufr.



Question 3: ´What does ´ahl al-bidat´ mean?´

Answer 3: If the cause of an innovator´s dissent from Ahl as-Sunnat is his belief in the superiority of ´Ali over Abu Bakr and ´Umar (radi-Allahu ´anhum), he is of ahl al-bidat as it is written in Hulasa, Hindiyya and many other invaluable books. The one who does not believe in the khilafat (caliphate) of one or both of the latter two caliphs was said to be a kafir by the ´ulama´ of fiqh and to be a man of bidat by the ´ulama´ of kalam. For the sake of precaution, the term ´man of bidat´ should be used for them. One absolutely becomes a kafir if says that Allahu ta´ala is a creature, or that the present Qur´an al-karim is deficient and contains alterations of as-Sahabat al-kiram and of later times, or that ´Ali (radi-Allahu ´anh) or one of the Twelve Imams is superior to prophets. It is written in Hindiyya, Zahiriyya, Al-Hadiqat an-nadiyya and in fiqh books that he will be treated as a murtad. There is detailed information on this subject in the book Makalat al-mufassira an ahkami ´l-bidati ´l-mukaffira. [Ibn Abidin wrote ´unlawful betrothal´ in Radd al-muhtar: ´If one worships Ali (radi-Allahu anh) or says, ´Jabrail was ordered to reveal the Qur´an to Ali, but he mistook and revealed it to Muhammad,´ or ´Abu Bakr was not a sahabi,´ or Hadrat A´isha committed adultery,´ he becomes a kafir. If he says that ´Ali (radi-Allahu anh) superior to the two caliphs, or curses or slanders at a sahabi, he becomes a man of bid´a.´ In the third volume, he wrote: ´If one curses at or damns the two caliphs, he becomes a kafir. Though those people called Durziz, Mulhids and Isma´ilis carry out the five fundamentals of Islam, they become kafirs because of their belief in transmigration of the soul and by regarding wine and intercourse as halal and giving false meanings to ayats.´ Ibn Abidin, in his book Uqud ad-duriyya, quoted Shaikh al-Islam Abdullah Effendi´s extensive fatwa about the Shi´ites and reveals those who fell in kufr among them.]



Question 4: ´What would say about those who praise the people called ´Batiniyya´ with the words the ´stars of knowledge,´ ´suns of ´ulama´,´ ´great alim of our time,´ or ´guide of the century´ and about those who believe these words?´

Answer 4: If they know that they praise those declared to be murtads, they also become murtads. Even if those praised are not murtads, it is apparent that it is ugly and bad to praise them. The hadith as-Sharif reported from Anas ibn Malik (radi-Allahu ´anh) by Ibn Abi ´d-dunya, Abu Yala and al-Baihaki and from Abu Huraira (radi-Allahu ´anh) by Ibn ´Adi says: ´When a sinner (fasiq) is praised, our Rabb´s indignation arouses.´ Permitting such praises or disseminating or advertising them shows consent to them. Consent to evils is also evil. [It is heard that some people admire the religious and political movement of, and praise the personality of, Humaini of Iran who is understood to be an enemy to as-Sahaba and to the whole of Ahl as-Sunna. They should carefully read this hadith and fatwa, get lesson from them and wake up from unawareness.]



Question 5: ´What would you say about some people´s saying that Allahu ta´ala and His Prophet (´alaihi ´s-salam) may lie?´

Answer 5: Lying is a deficiency and ugliness. It has been unanimously declared that there is no ugly thing attributable to Allahu ta´ala or His Rasul (´alaihi ´s-salam). This is dealt in detail in my book Subhana ´s-subbuh an ´aybi kazbin makbuh, wherein I gave documents from the ´ulama´ of kalam and tafsir. In many books by Arab and Persian ´ulama´, it is written that those who say so have dissented from the right path and that they are heretics. The book Ad-durar as-saniyya by Hadrat ´Allama Ahmad ibn Zain ibn Dahlan al-Makki, who was one of my masters in hadith, tells in detail about their heresies and gives, from Hadrat Mawlana Abu ´s-su´ud, the Mufti of al-Madinat al-munawwara, passages refuting them. They have been caught by the Satan´s current and become soldiers to the Satan. The soldiers of the Satan will certainly be ruined.



Question 6: ´We nowadays see upstart people who are called ´Ghair al-muqallidin,´ that is non-or la-madhhabite people. They neither follow any of the four madhhabs nor let anybody follow one of them. They call themselves ahl al-hadith. They say that they follow only the Hadith. We see that some ignorant people, who are deprived of religious education and cannot differentiate the truth from the wrong and the straight from the crooked, pass themselves for authorities on religion after learning some Arabic in Egypt, the Hijaz, Iraq or in Damascus and write books on religion. What would you say about them and their books?´

Answer 6: In the subject on ´Zabayih´ in the marginalia of Durr al-mukhtar, ´Allama Sayyid Ahmad at-Tahtawi, one of the ´ulama of the Hanafi madhhab, writes: ´One who departs from the path of the ´ulama´ of fiqh, from as-siwad al-azam, will have directed himself to Hell. Oh Muslims! Therefore, hold fast to the path of Ahl as-Sunnat wal-Jamaat which is called ´al-firqat an-najiyya´ (group of Salvation), the unique group reported by our Prophet (´alaihi ´s-salam) to be saved from Hell! Because, Allahu ta´ala´s help, protection and taking to bliss are only for those who are on this path. Allahu ta´ala´s Ghadab (Wrath) and adhab (torture) are for those who dissent from this path. Today, this firqat najiyya has gathered in the four madhhabs, namely, Hanafi, Shafi´i, Maliki and Hanbali. One who does not belong to any of these four madhhabs is a man of bidat or a man for Hell [heretic or unbeliever].´ Great Imam Sufyan ath-Thawri (radi Allahu ´anh) said, ´If one who is not an alim in fiqh tries to adapt his affairs to hadiths, he leads himself to heresy.´ Great Imam Ibn al-Hajj al-Makki said the same in his work Al-mad´hal. My fatwas about and articles on the la-madhhabi are available in my book Al-barikat ash-sharika ´ala marikat al-musharika.



Question 7: ´Some people say, ´The la-madhhabi belong to Ahl As-Sunnat and are even licensed authorities on religion. They differ from Ahl as-Sunnat only in insignificant teachings, and this difference is beneficial as that between the Hanafi, Shafi´i and Maliki madhhabs, thus they help the religion of Islam. Should not the la-madhhabi, therefore be considered as those in the Hanafi and Shafi´i madhhabs and should not we know them as Islamic brothers and love heartfully and respect them? Isn´t it the way of th


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