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:*:The Piri Reis Map:*:

Los Mapas de Piri Reis

The Piri Reis Map

How is it possible that maps of the XVI to XVIII detailing with millimetric precision the Antarctic continent, which was not discovered until 1818? What's more, how do you explain that you draw these maps without ice, 6000 years ago when its costs are literally frozen. Cartographers have them well clear: they copied their maps of navigation charts designed in the dark mists of time. But by whom?


Of Greek descent and Christian and nephew of the pirate Kemal Reis. Piri Reis became Admiral of the Fleet in the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. It was in 1513 when Piri Reis in the town of Gallipoli, he began compiling the maps, which in 1517 offered as a gift to Sultan Selim I, conqueror of Egypt, during a trip to this place by the country. The discovery of the maps dating back to November 9 of 1929 when the Topkapi palace in Istanbul, was transformed into a museum of antiquities and its director, B. Halil Eldem, found two pieces of a map drawn by Piri Reis Marine, sailor Turkish sixteenth century. Piri Reis wrote in the margins of the maps that mapped for the manufacture of its navigational charts had used a compilation or collection of maps that already exist previously. In these annotations, called \ "bahriye " Piri Reis writes: \ "The Piri Reis drew the poor, the son of Mehmet Hajj, known as the nephew of carnal Kemal Reis in the town of Gelibolu (Gallipoli). God have mercy on both, in the holy month of Muharrem of the year 919 \ "(March 9 - April 7 1513). MAPS The collection consists of 210 maps sided with the generic title of \ "Book of the Sea ". The maps found in the Topkapi palace in Istanbul dates undated lead the years 1513 and 1528 yfueron drawn on gazelle skin with a size of 85 x 60 cm can be seen even their exquisite colors. The maps also contain illustrations of legends, the rivers are marked with thick lines and shallow waters with red dots, there are also drawings of wildlife and inhabitants of different areas. Among the maps made by Piri Reis, dating from the 1513 includes Britain, Spain, West Africa, parts of North and South America (including the Amazon and the Gulf of Venezuela) and the coast of Antarctica to an area below Africa and that being torn, it is suspected that should also contain the rest of Europe, Asia and even Australia. The map dated in 1528 covering Greenland, the peninsula of Labrador, Newfoundland, Canada and part of the entire east coast of North America coming to Florida. According to records left on the maps, Piri Reis said that their maps compiled using 20 old planes and eight maps compiled at the time of Alexander the Great (sixth century before Christ) and that these appeared in the whole inhabited world, so some maps dated in the sixteenth century we moved from shock to other maps still far more ancient. Many studies have been scholars and many of these maps are still those who seek to unravel the mystery is hidden, but those who have gone farther in his investigations, are Aarlington H. Mallery, Walters, Lineham, Charles H. Hapgood and Sarton. In the mid-forties, a number of museums and libraries acquired copies of these fragments to enlarged scale. In mid-fifties some of those copies were picked up at the U.S. cartographer Arlington H. Mallery, specializes in old nautical charts for decades. Arlington Mallery sought the help of his colleague Walters, the Hydrographic Institute of the United States Navy. And input, Walters noted the accuracy of the proportions and distances between the Old and New Worlds, like the location of the Canary Islands and the Azores. Both researchers also noted that Piri Reis did not use the coordinates in its usual time, and really felt that the Earth was round and had him in mind when drawing your map. In order to explore more thoroughly and with as much detail as the maps of Piri Reis, decided to produce a kind of grid that would allow them to read the dimensions of the ancient map scale and power transferred to a modern world. Which would not be surprised to discover that not only the contours of the American coast, but also those of Antarctica, corresponded with any accuracy to which we know today thanks to modern science. In the Piri Reis map of the South American end of the Tierra del Fuego extends in a narrow strip as an appendix that nearly connects with the Antarctic, where it returns to widen. Millimeter to millimeter compared the map of Reis to the profiles of underwater land obtained by the most modern scientific means: aerial photography, tap water with infrared ray cameras, acoustic probes sent from ships ... With all these data in hand, it appeared that some 11,000 years ago (end of the Ice Age), continental bridge that existed in South America and Antarctica. Also commenting that the profiles coastal islands, bays and promontories of the Antarctic continent are represented on maps of Piri Reis to an accuracy of profiles exceptional, but for thousands of years are hidden under a thick layer of ice. During the year 1957, also became interested in maps father Lineham, a former director of the astronomical observatory in Weston and cartographer for the U.S. Navy. His conclusion was the same: the maps (especially the area of Antarctica) are incredibly precise, to provide information to us only after we found that the Antarctic expeditions Swedish, British and Norwegians conducted in 1949 and 1952. The great veteran of cartography, Professor Charles H. Hapgood, was delivered to his time to studying the maps of Piri Reis. In one of the letters received by Hapgood of the U.S. Air Force, responsible for mapping the Antarctic, was recorded as follows: \ "The coastlines had to be mapped before the continent was covered by ice. In this region The ice reached nearly a mile thick. We do not have the slightest idea of how these data were noted on the map with only the geographical knowledge of 1513 \ ". Professor Sarton, Harvard conducted a study of the scale, using as a yardstick measuring the Greek stadium. The scale used by Piri Reis was derived from measuring the circumference of the Earth conducted by the wise Greek Eratosthenes (third century - BC) and was estimated at stadia (1 stadium = 186 meters), and extracted the following conclusion: the distances between various points were accurate. Piri Reis, Eratosthenes as both overestimated the perimeter of the globe by 4.5%, then subtract that difference to the scale of the maps of Piri Reis, the accuracy with the reality is staggering. CONCLUSION Among all researchers who studied the maps came to a startling conclusion, and that is that the maps of Piri Reis could only be made based on aerial photographs, taken at an extraordinary height, from a kind of satellite as those used at present . But if that was impossible to even think about the early years of our century, how can it be that they were made in the days of Alexander the Great, and if so, what information was in the fourth century BC to be able to make maps so perfect without a single technology developed in the late twentieth century. But the surprises do not end there. To look closely at the maps of Piri Reis, one can see that between South America and Africa there is a large island called \ "Antillia " (which does not exist at present) surrounded by other smaller islands. And now that we've seen the maps of Piri Reis are not the result of chance, it will not be this island's famous Atlantis Plato?. Source: D. Enrique Garcia Barthe Ex-Cartographer of the Naval Hydrographic Service of the Argentine Navy

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Los Mapas de Piri Reis

¿Cómo es posible que mapas de los siglos XVI al XVIII detallen con precisión milimétrica el continente antártico, que no fue descubierto hasta 1818? Y lo que es más, ¿cómo se explica que esos mapas lo dibujen sin hielos, cuando hace 6000 años sus costas están literalmente congeladas. Los cartógrafos los tienen así de claro: ellos copiaron sus mapas de cartas de navegación diseñadas en la oscura noche de los tiempos. Pero ¿por quién?


De descendencia griega y cristiana y sobrino del pirata Kemal Reis. Piri Reis llegó a ser almirante de la Flota en el Mar Rojo y en el golfo Pérsico. Fue en 1.513 cuando Piri Reis, en la ciudad de Gallípoli, comenzó a confeccionar los mapas, que en 1.517 ofreció como regalo al sultán Selim I, conquistador de Egipto, durante un viaje que este realizó por el país. El descubrimiento de los mapas se remonta al 9 de noviembre de 1.929 cuando el palacio Topkapi, en Estambul, fue trasformado en museo de antigüedades y su director, B. Halil Eldem, encontró dos fragmentos de un mapa trazado por el marino Piri Reis, navegante turco del siglo XVI. Piri Reis anotó en los márgenes de los mapas que cartografió que para la confección de sus cartas de navegación había utilizado una compilación o colección de mapas que ya existan con anterioridad. En estas anotaciones, llamadas "bahriye", Piri Reis escribe: "Los dibujó el pobre Piri Reis, hijo de Hadj Mehmet, conocido como sobrino carnal de Kemal Reis, en la ciudad de Gelibolu (Gallípoli). Dios tenga misericordia de ambos, en el mes del santo Muharrem del año 919" (9 de marzo - 7 de abril 1.513). LOS MAPAS La colección está compuesta por 210 mapas parciales con el título genérico de "Libro de los Mares". Los mapas encontrados en el palacio Topkapi de Estambul llevan datadas las fechas los años 1.513 y 1.528 yfueron trazados sobre piel de gacela con unas dimensiones de 85 x 60 cm pudiéndose apreciar aún sus exquisitos colores. Los mapas también contienen leyendas de las ilustraciones, los rios son marcados con líneas gruesas y las aguas poco profundas con puntos rojos, también hay dibujos de la fauna y habitantes de las diferentes zonas. Entre los mapas realizados por Piri Reis, el fechado en 1.513 incluye Gran Bretaña, España, África Occidental, parte de Norteamérica y Sudamérica (incluido el Amazonas y el golfo de Venezuela) y la costa de la Antártida hasta una zona por debajo de África y que al estar rasgado, se sospecha que debió contener también el resto de Europa, Asia e incluso Australia. El mapa datado en 1.528 abarca Groenlandia, la península de Labrador, Terranova, parte de Canadá y toda la costa oriental de Norteamérica llegando a Florida. Según las anotaciones que dejó en los mapas, Piri Reis dice que confeccionó sus mapas utilizando 20 viejos planos y ocho mapamundis confeccionados en la época de Alejandro Magno (siglo VI antes de Cristo) y que en estos aparecía la totalidad del mundo habitado, de modo que unos mapas fechados en el siglo XVI nos trasladan de golpe a otros mapas todavía mucho más antíguos. LOS ESTUDIOS Muchos han sido los estudiosos de estos mapas y numerosos son todavía los que pretenden desentrañar ...


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