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* Wolves can live up to 13 years in the wild but the average is only 6 to 8 years.
* Wolves in captivity have been known to live up to 16 years.
* Wolves have 42 teeth.
* Wolves breed once a year, December through March, depending on latitude, the gestation period is 63 days.
* Wolf pups are born in northern climates as late as early June and in southern climates as early as late February
* The average litter size is 4 to 6 cubs.
* The cubs weigh approximately one pound at birth and cannot see or hear.
* Fur color varies from gray, tan and brown to pure white or black.
* Packs can have as little as 2 members or as many as 30 members. Average Pack size is 6 to 8.
* The wolf is the largest in the wild canine family.
* The coyote evolved separately from the wolf over 500,000 years ago.
* A Wolf in a hurry can go as fast as 35 miles per hour for short distances.
* The Wolves' diet of choice consists of deer, moose, caribou, elk, bison, musk-oxen and beaver. They have been known to survive on voles and mice if need be.
* Wolves have a vast communication repertoire including scent marks, vocalizations, visual displays, facial and body postures and rituals.
* Wolves communicate with each other more by harmony and integration rather than by aggression and submission.
* Wolves are territorial and defend their territory through vocalizations and scent marking.
* The wolf has extremely powerful jaws capable of generating 1,500 psi pressure.
* The wolf has one of the widest ranges of size, shape and color of any mammal in North America.
* The wolf can kill healthy animals but naturally seeks out the sick, the weak, crippled, old and young animals.
* The canine teeth "interlock" so the wolf can grip and hang on to struggling prey.
* The back teeth, or carnassial molars, are designed to crush bones and shear meat.
* Adult male wolves average ninety-five to one hundred pounds and females about fifteen pounds less.
* Wolves howl to greet one another, to indicate their location, to define their territorial boundaries, and to call the pack together.
* Submissive behavior plays a big role in maintaining peace within the pack.
* A wolf's front feet are larger than their back feet.
* In addition to howling, wolves bark, yap, whine, and growl.
* Pups emerge from the den at about one month of age.
* All members of a wolf pack take part in caring for the young.

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